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M 



NORTH ADAMS 
NORMAL SCHOOL 




1920 



Catalog and Circular 




w ®0*v m ™ m 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/cataloguecircula1920stat 



State Normal School 



AT 



NORTH ADAMS, MASS. 



Established June, 1894 



Circular and Catalog 



For the Year ending June 30, 1920 




BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS 

32 DERNE STREET 

1920 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration 



DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 






PAYSON SMITH ..... Commissioner of Education. 



Advisory Board of Education 

FREDERICK P. FISH . . . .84 State Street, Boston 

SARAH LOUISE ARNOLD . . .300 The Fenway, Boston 

Mbs. ELLA LYMAN CABOT . . . 1 Marlborough Street, Boston 

A. LINCOLN FILENE .... Corner Washington and Sum- 
mer streets, Boston 
WALTER V. McDUFFEE .... 336 Central Street, Spring- 
field 
THOMAS H. SULLIVAN .... Slater Building, Worcester 



Division of Elementary and Secondary Education and Normal Schools 
FRANK W. WRIGHT, Director 

Agents 

CLARENCE D. KINGSLEY . . . High Schools 

BURR F. JONES Elementary Schools 

ROBERT I. BRAMHALL .... Research and Statistics 

HARRY E. GARDNER .... Registration of Teachers 

The Department of Education 

Division of Elementary and Secondary Education and Normal Schools 

Division of Vocational Educatiox 

Division of University Extension 

Division of Education of Aliens 

DrvisiON of Public Libraries 

Division of the Blind 

Teachers' Retirement Board 

Massachusetts Nautical School 

Massachusetts Agricultural College 

Bradford-Durfee Textile School, Fall River 

Lowell Textile School 

New Bedford Textile School 



FACULTY 



FRANK F. MURDOCK, Principal 



Prank F. Murdoch 
Roy L. Smith 
Albert G. Eldridge 
Thomas F. Cummings 
Mary A. Pearson 
Rosa E. Searle . 
Annie C. Skeele 
Mary L. B aright 
Donna D. Couch 
Eliza G. Graves 
Edna E. Varrell 
Anna J. Lamphier 



Psychology, pedagogy 

History, civics, biology, gardening 

English, history of education, geography 

Wood and iron work 

Drawing and fine arts, handicraft 

Geometry, arithmetic, music 

. Physical education 

English language, literature 

Child study, school management 

Kindergarten theory and method 

Sanitation, cooking, sewing 

Handicraft, printing 

. Correspondence courses 



Mark Hopkins Training School 
Donna D. Couch 
Alice M. Card . 
Mildred E. Crews 
Frances A. Durnin . 
Marion H. Ketchum . 
Idella Haskins . 
Margaret M. McCormack 
Lena A. West 
Emily D. Stacy . 
Freelove Clarke 
Agnes E. Walker 
Susan G. Lombard 
Anna D. Donovan 
Harriet S. Smith 
Lucie M. Ware . 
Mae E. McGowan 
Eliza G. Graves 
Edith E. Phillips 



Briggsville Rural Training School 



Ruth A. Lyman . 
Matilda I. Hettinger 



Principal 

Eighth grade 

Eighth grade 

Seventh grade 

Seventh grade 

Sixth grade 

Sixth grade 

Fifth grade 

Fifth grade 

Fourth grade 

Fourth grade 

Third grade 

Third grade 

Second grade 

First grade 

First grade 

Principal, kindergarten 

Assistant, kindergarten 



Grammar department 
Primary department 



Bishop Rural Training School 

Marion F. Wheeler ....... Training teacher 



CALENDAR 



1920 

Graduation 

Tuesday, June 22, 2 p.m. 

Entrance Examinations 

Tuesday and Wednesday, June 8 and 9, at 8.30 a.m. 
Monday and Tuesday, September 13 and 14, at 8.30 a.m. 

School Sessions Begin 

Training schools, Tuesday, September 7 
Normal school, Wednesday, September 15 

Thanksgiving Recess 

Normal school, Tuesday night, November 23, to Monday night, November 29 
Training schools, Wednesday noon, November 24, to Sunday night, November 28 

Christmas Recess 1 

Normal school, Friday night, December 17, to Monday night, January 3 
Training schools, Friday night, December 17, to Sunday night, January 2 



1921 
Winter Recess 



Normal school, Friday night, February 25, to Monday night, March 7 
Training schools, Friday night, February 25, to Sunday night, March 6 

Spring Recess 

Normal school, Friday night, April 29, to Monday night, May 9 
Training schools, Friday night, April 29, to Sunday night, May 8 

Graduation 
Tuesday, June 28, 2 p.m. 

Sessions are from 9 a.m. to 12 m., and 1.30 p.m. to 4 p.m. Saturday sessions 
are omitted. 

1 Recesses subject to change. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

NORTH ADAMS, MASSACHUSETTS 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION 

I. A candidate for admission to a Massachusetts State 
normal school as a regular student must have attained the 
age of seventeen years if a man, and sixteen years if a woman, 
on or before the first day of September in the year in which 
he seeks admission (but for admission to the household arts 
course at the Framingham Normal School an age of at least 
eighteen years is required); must be free from diseases or in- 
firmities or other defects which would unfit him for the office 
of teacher; must present a certificate of good moral character; 
and must present evidence of graduation from a high school 
or of equivalent preparation, and, in addition, offer such 
satisfactory evidence of scholarship as may be required by 
the regulations of the Department. He must submit detailed 
records of scholarship from the principal of the high school 
or other school in which preparation has been made, showing 
the amount of time given to individual subjects and the grades 
therein, and such additional evidence of qualifications for the 
calling of teacher as may be defined in the regulations of the 
Department relating to normal schools. 

II. A candidate for admission as a regular student to a 
general course must offer satisfactory evidence of preparation 
in the subjects listed under "A," "B" and "C," amounting 
to 15 units, 10 of which units, however, must be in subjects 
under "A" and "B" and secured either by examination or 
certification. (The Massachusetts Normal Art School requires, 
in addition, that a special examination in drawing be passed. 
Applicants for admission to the Practical Arts Department of 
the Fitchburg Normal School may substitute evidence of 
practical experience in some industrial employment in whole 
or in part for the above.) 

A unit represents a year's study in any subject in a second- 



10 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



ary school, constituting approximately one-quarter of a full 
year's work. 

A. Prescribed Subjects. — Three units. 
(1) English literature and composition . . .3 units 



B. Elective Subjects. — At least 7 units 


from the following 


subjects: — 


(2) Algebra .... .1 unit 


(3) Geometry .... 








1 unit 


(4) History 1 








1, 2 or 3 units 


(5) Community civics 








| or 1 unit 


(6) Latin .... 








2, 3 or 4 units 


(7) French 








2 or 3 units 


(8) German .... 








2 or 3 units 


(9) Spanish .... 








2 units 


(10) Physics .... 








1 unit 


(11) Chemistry .... 








1 unit 


(12) Biology, botany or zoology . 








\ or 1 unit 


(13) Physical geography 








\ or 1 unit 


(14) Physiology and hygiene 








\ or 1 unit 


(15) General science . 








\ or 1 unit 


(16) Drawing .... 








| or 1 unit 


(17) Household arts . 








1, 2 or 3 units 


(18) Manual training . 








1 unit 


(19) Stenography, including typewriting 








1 or 2 units 


(20) Bookkeeping 








1 unit 


(21) Commercial geography 








§ or 1 unit 


(22) Arithmetic .... 








\ or 1 unit 


(23) Current events 








1 unit 



For the present, the topics included within the foregoing 
subjects will be such as are usually accepted by the Massa- 
chusetts colleges for entrance. The outlines submitted by the 
College Entrance Examination Board (substation 84, New 
York City) will be found suggestive by high schools. 

C. Additional Subjects. — At least 5 units from any of the 
foregoing subjects, or from other subjects approved by the 
high school towards the diploma of graduation of the appli- 
cant representing work in addition to that for which credit is 
gained by examination or certification. 

1 History includes: ancient, mediaeval and modern; English; American history and 
civics; history to 1700; European history since 1700. 



. K NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 11 



III. A. Examinations. — Each applicant for admission, 
unless exempted by the provisions of sections IV. and V., 
must pass entrance examinations in the subjects as required 

under "A" and "B." Examinations in these subjects will be 
hold at each of the normal schools in June and September of 
each year (examinations for the Massachusetts Normal Art 
School are held only in September). Candidates applying for 
admission by examination must present credentials or certifi- 
cates from their schools to cover the requirements under 
'* C," and will not be given examinations in these subjects. 
Persons not able to present these credentials must obtain 
credit for 15 units by examination in the subjects listed under 
-A " and "B." 

B. Division of Examinations. — A candidate for admission 
to a normal school may take all of the examinations at once, 
or divide them between June and September. A candidate will 
receive permanent credit for any units secured by examination 
or certification. 

IV. Admission on Certificate. — A graduate of a public high 
school approved by the Department of Education for purposes 
of certification to a State normal school may be exempted by the 
principal of the normal school from examination in any of the 
subjects under "A" and " B " in which the applicant has a record 
of B or 80 per cent in the last year in which such subject has been 
pursued and in which the principal of the high school shall cer- 
tify that the applicant is entitled to certification, in accordance 
with standards as denned by the Department of Education. 

Credits secured by any candidate from the Board of Regents 
of the State of New York, or for admission to any college in 
the New England College Entrance Certificate Board, either 
by examination or certification, or in the examinations of 
the College Entrance Examination Board, will be accepted 
towards the total of 10 units under "A" and "B." In addi- 
tion to the units granted by certification candidates must 
present credentials for subjects under " C." 

V. Admission of Special Students. — (a) When in any 
normal school, or in any course therein, the number of stu- 
dents entered as regular students and as advanced students 



12 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 

at the opening of any school year is below the maximum 
number for which the school has accommodations, the com- 
missioner may authorize the admission as a special student 
of an applicant who, being otherwise qualified, and who, hav- 
ing taken the entrance examinations, has failed to meet the 
full requirements provided in the regulations of the Depart- 
ment, but who, nevertheless, is recommended by the principal 
of the normal school as, in his estimation, qualified to become 
a teacher. Such a special student shall be given regular stand- 
ing only when he shall have satisfied all admission require- 
ments, and when his work in the school, in the estimation of 
the principal, justifies such standing. The principal of the 
normal school shall report annually in October to the commis- 
sioner as to all special students. Certificates may be granted 
to special students in accordance with regulations approved by 
the Department. 

(b) When in any normal school, or in any course therein, 
the number of students entered as regular students, as ad- 
vanced students and as special students as defined in (a) at 
the opening of any school year is below the maximum number 
for which the school has accommodations, the commissioner 
may, subject to such special regulations as may be approved 
by the Department, authorize the admission to any class as a 
special student, on the recommendation of the principal, of a 
person possessing special or exceptional qualifications for the 
work of such class. Such special student shall not be con- 
sidered a candidate for a diploma until he shall have qualified 
as a regular student, but may, on the satisfactory completion 
of the work of the course, be granted a certificate to that effect 
by the Department. The principal of the normal school shall 
report annually in October to the commissioner as to all special 
students in the school under the provisions of this section. 

VI. Admission as Advanced Students. — A graduate of a 
normal school or of a college, or any person with not less than 
three years' satisfactory experience in teaching, may be ad- 
mitted as a regular or as an advanced student to any course 
under such regulations as may be approved by the Depart- 
ment. 



8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



13 



SCHEDULE OF ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS 



8.30- 8.45. 

8.45-10.30. 
10.30-11.30. 
11.30-12.30. 



Tuesday, 
Morning 

Registration 

English 

Geometry 

Household arts, man- 
ual training 



June 8, 1920 

1.30-2.30. 
2.30-4.00. 
4.00-5.00. 



Afternoon 

Drawing, stenography 
Latin, arithmetic 
General science, current 
events 



Wednesday, June 9, 1920 





Morning 




Afternoon 


8.15- 8.30. 


Registration 


1.30-2.30. 


Algebra 


8.30-10.00. 


French, German 


2.30-3.30. 


Chemistry, physics 


10.00-11.30. 


History 


3.30-4.30. 


Physiology, bookkeep- 


11.30-12.30. 


Physical geography, 




ing 




commercial geogra- 


4.30-5.30. 


Biology, botany, zool- 




phy 




ogy 




Monday, September 13, 1920 




Morning 




Afternoon 


8.30- 8.45. 


Registration 


1.30-2.30. 


Drawing, stenography 


8.45-10.30. 


English 


2.30-4.00. 


Latin, arithmetic 


10.30-11.30. 


Geometry 


4.00-5.00. 


General science, current 


11.30-12.30. 


Household arts, man- 
ual training 




events 




Tuesday, Sept 


EMBER 14, 1920 




Morning 




Afternoon 


8.15- 8.30. 


Registration 


1.30-2.30. 


Algebra 


8.30-10.00. 


French, German 


2.30-3.30. 


Chemistry, physics 


10.00-11.30. 


History 


3.30^.30. 


Physiology, bookkeep- 


11.30-12.30. 


Physical geography, 




ing 




commercial geogra- 


4.30-5.30. 


Biology, botany, zool- 




phy 




ogy 



14 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



TIMES OF EXAMINATION AND ADMISSION 

Examinations for admission to the normal school are held 
at the close of the school year in June, and also at the begin- 
ning of the school year in September, as stated in the calendar. 
Candidates are advised to present themselves at the first exam- 
ination. 

It is advisable that application be made soon after January 
1, and that certificates be. forwarded early in June. 

New classes are admitted to the normal schools only at the 
beginning of the fall term. Candidates should come in Sep- 
tember prepared to stay, as regular work begins on the day 
following the examinations. In exceptional cases admissions 
to classes already formed are allowed at the beginning of the 
second term. 

CURRICULA 

I. Elementary and Intermediate Departments combined 

A period is forty-five minutes in length. 







Number of 
Weeks 


Periods Weekly op — 


Name and Number op 
Course 


Recitation 


Laboratory 

or 

Teaching 


Expected 

Outside 

Preparation 


First Year 
English Language 1 (ELI) 
English Language 2 (E L 2) 
English Language 5 (E L 5) 
English Language 7 (E L 7) 
Mathematics 1 (Ma 1) 
Mathematics 2 (Ma 2) 
Practical Science 1 (P S 1) . 
Practical Science 2 (P S 2) . 
Physical Education 1 (P E 1) 
Physical Education 2 (P E 2) 
Music 1 (Mu 1) . 
Music 2 (Mu 2) . 




19 
19 
19 
10 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
38 
19 
38 


2 
3 
2 
1 
3 
5 
2 

3 

4 

1 


1 

2 

Occasional 

3 


3 
2 

1 
2-4 
3 
5 
3 
2 
2 

1 



STATE NORMAL school AT NORTH ADAMS 



15 



I. Elementary and Intermediate Departments — Concluded 





X umber of 


PraoM Weekly 


OF — 


N VM! LXS XlMHKK OF 

Coi 


Recitation 


! Laboratory 
or 
thing 


Expected 

Outside 

Preparation 


Drawing and Fine Arts 1 (D 1) . 


38 


Occasional 


3 


- 


Practical Arts 1 (P A 1) 


12 


Occasional 


3 


1 


Practical Arts 2 (P A 2) 


12 


Occasional 


3 


1 


Practical Arts 3 (PA 3) . 


12 


Occasional 


3 


1 


Practical Arts 4 (P A 4) . 


19 


1 


2 


3 


Education 1 (E 1) 


28 


1 


- 


1 


Education 6 (E 6) 


19 


- 


4 


1 


Education 7 (E 7) 


19 


- 


4 


2 


Second Year 










English Language 3 (E L 3) 


19 


3 


- 


3 


English Language 4 (E L 4) 


19 


2 


- 


2 


English Language 6 (E L 6) 


19 


3 


- 


1 


Literature (L) 


38 


3 


- 


3 


Practical Science 3 (P S 3) . 


19 


1 


1 


2 


Physical Education 3 (P E 3) . 


38 


Occasional 


3 


Occasional 


Music 2 (Mu 2) . 


38 


- 


1 


- 


Drawing and Fine Arts 2 (D 2) . 


19 


Occasional 


3 


Occasional 


Practical Arts 5 (P A 5) . 


19 


Occasional 


2 


- 


Practical Arts 7 (P A 7) . 


19 


Occasional 


2 


- 


Geography (Ge) .... 


38 


2 


1 


3 


History, Social Science 1 (HI) . 


19 


3 


- 


3 


History, Social Science 2 (H 2) . 


19 


1 


- 


1 


Education 2 (E 2) 


19 


5 


- 


5 


Education 3 (E 3) 


19 


1 


- 


1 


Education 4 (E 4) 


38 


1 


- 


1 


Education 8 (E 8) 


6 


- 


18 


25 


Education 9 (E 9) 


6 


- 


18 


25 


Elective 










Practical Arts 6 (PA 6) 


19 


y 2 


1H 


2 


Practical Arts 8 (P A 8) 


19 


Occasional 


2 


2 


Education 5 (E 5) 


38 


3 


- 


3 



16 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



II. Primary Department 

The curriculum of this department varies from that of the 
elementary department in the substitution of Education 5, 
kindergarten and primary principles and methods, in place 
of History and Social Science 1 during the first half of the 
second year, and in place of Literature during the second 
half of the second year. 

The principles which control kindergarten instruction apply 
not alone to children three or four years of age, but as well 
to the whole phase of early childhood, — the period extending 
from two or three to seven or eight years of age. Kinder- 
garten and primary instruction differentiate not in principle, 
not in general method, but in the adaptation of ways and 
means to the tendencies and growing powers prominent at 
that period. The process is continuous, the objects studied 
vary, constructive power widens in application, the use of 
symbols becomes increasingly prominent. The curriculum as 
planned and practiced trains teachers to work in kindergarten 
and primary grades, to make due connection with home in- 
struction, and to make possible and easy the development 
characteristic of following years. 

Practice teaching is confined to the kindergarten and first 
four grades if the number in the class is not too large. Ob- 
servation ranges through older grades also, according to the 
need of the student. 

III. Household Arts Department 

Students of requisite ability who desire to prepare in a 
larger degree to teach the household arts in rural and semi- 
rural schools, with the purpose of making the schools more 
vital factors in the welfare of the several communities, are 
allowed to take elective advanced courses in cooking and 
sewing in place of portions of the work in mathematics, his- 
tory, and literature, yet not to the degree of lessening effi- 
ciency in the usual instruction required in elementary schools. 




KINDERGARTEN — PRIMARY COURSES 



mwm 




STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



17 



Candidates for these elective courses must be of superior 
ability, must present evidence of skill in cooking and sewing, 
and should have studied chemistry in the high school. 



Elementary-Intermediate Department 









Junior Class 








/' $i Half Y<<ir 


Periods 




Second Half Year Periods 


ELI 


Oral Language 


2 


EL2 


Silent, Oral Reading 




Mai 


Concrete Geometry 




3 




Pronunciation, Spelling 


3 


PS2 


Plant Life . 




3 


ELo 


Oral Reading 1 


2 


PE1 


Hygiene 






3 


Ma2 


Arithmetic 


5 


PE2 


Gymnastics 1 






4 


PS1 


Sanitation 


3 


Mul 


Music 1 






4 


PE2 


Gymnastics 1 . 


4 


Dl 


Drawing 1 






3 


Dl 


Drawing 1 


3 


PA123 Handicraft 






3 


PA123 Handicraft 


3 


El 


Child Study 






1 


PA4 


Gardening 


3 


E6 


Practice Teaching 1 




4 


El 


Child Study 


1 






— 


E7 


Practice Teaching 2 


3 




Periods per week 


. 30 
Senior 


Class 


Periods per week . 


30 




First Half Year 


Periods 




Second Half Year Periods 


EL3 


Grammar . 


. 3 


EL4 


Composition 


2 


L 


Literature . 


, 3 


EL6 


Oral Reading 2 


3 


PS3 


Animal Life 


. 2 


EL7 


Penmanship 


1 


PE3 


Gymnastics 2 . 


. 4 


L 


Literature 


3 


D2 


Drawing 2 


. 3 


PE3 


Gymnastics 2 . 


4 


PA5 


Cooking 1 . 


. 3 


PA7 


Sewing 


2 


Ge 


Geography 


. 4 


Ge 


Geography 


2 


HI 


American History 


. 3 


E2 


Psychology 


5 


H2 


Civics . 


. 1 


E3 


History of Education 


1 


E4 


Management 


. 1 


E4 


Management . 


1 


E8 


Practice Teaching 3 


. 4 


E9 


Practice Teaching . 


6 




Periods per w 


eek 




. 31 




Periods per week . 


. 30 



18 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

The aims common to all these courses are to know that 
language is instinctive and is vital to thought. To discover 
by personal investigation how hearing and seeing language, 
speaking and writing, spontaneity and originality in expression 
vary naturally in each child in the successive phases of his 
development, and in different children at the same stage of 
development. 

To teach language as a means of expressing experience. To 
appreciate the complete dependence of expression on impres- 
sion in learning conventional language. To derive the content 
of language lessons, both instruction and practice, from the 
expressions of children, and to apply the same to their real 
activities. 

To define the respective purposes of instruction, application 
and correction. To know the conditions essential to securing 
skill in the correct use of language. To distinguish the causes 
of bad language habits in each pupil. 

To adapt the steps in the subject and the modes of instruc- 
tion and drill to the needs of the individual; to the charac- 
teristics of the class. To establish habits of correct speaking 
and writing. To base methods of instruction, drill, and correc- 
tion on the structure and functions of the brain and on the 
natural way in which children learn language. 

English Language 1. Oral language. Miss Baright. 
First half of first year. Nineteen weeks; two periods weekly; outside 
preparation, three periods weekly. 

Aims (in addition to those common to all English language courses) : To 
judge and correct one's own oral language on both formal and informal occasions. 
To compare the oral language of children from different home environments, 
from similar home environments. To compare in-school and out-of-school 
speech habits as to vocabulary, sentence forms, pronunciation, quality of voice, 
spontaneity, and self-correction. To discriminate the speech errors of indi- 
vidual pupils. 

To make instruction agree with the natural way in which all children learn 
speech. To realize that spontaneity, pride in correct expression, and enjoyment 
of discrimination in language are stimulated chiefly by emulation. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 19 



To adjust instruction to the needs of non-English speaking, in whole or in 
part, pupiN. 

Content: Kinds of language. How speech is learned. Conversation, — 
characteristics of children's; why, when and how to hold; language improve- 
ment resulting' Story tolling, — purposes, types of stories, selection, adapta- 
tion, preparation, tailing, effects. Use of pictures. Dramatizing, — dramatic 
play, home play, free play at school, guiding dramatic play, effects. Reciting 
rhymes and poetry, cumulative prose stories and other prose selections, — im- 
portance to children, place in the teaching of English, choice. 

Method: Mutual observation and correction by students of their own lan- 
fuage. Observation and grouping of errors in children's speech for instructive, 
corrective, and drill lest 

Observation of lessons taught by the regular teacher or the normal school 
instructor. Report and discussion of the content and method of the lesson and 
of the children's responses. Illustration and analysis of methods of teaching 
type lessons. 

Collection and arrangement of material for illustration and application. 
Comparison of manuals of language instruction. Planning lessons for imitative 
teaching Instruction of retarded or advanced individuals, of groups, and of 
whole classes. Correlation with drawing and the practical arts. 



English Language 2. Silent and oral reading. Pronouncing 
and spelling. Mr. Eldridge. 

Second half of first year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly; outside 
preparation, two periods weekly. This course emphasizes the elementary 
processes of learning to read silently and orally. 

Aims (in addition to the aims described in previous language courses) : To 
establish the habit of judging and correcting one's own reading. To make 
methods of teaching reading conform with brain structure and function. To 
make clear the necessity of teaching one language process at a time. To account 
for the variations in the vocabularies and sentence construction of children's 
speech and reading, in good and poor reading, in quality of reading in other than 
reading lessons, in kinds of mistakes. To compare the relative amounts of in- 
struction and correction necessary in learning to speak and to read. To adapt 
silent and oral reading in kind and amount to the differing ability and develop- 
ment of the children and their facility in speaking English. 

Content: Analysis of oral rhymes and prose stories. Kinds of oral-word 
lessons. Meanings of oral words. Word hearing (phonics). Word pronouncing. 

How written language is learned. Story method of learning silent reading; 
comparison of prevailing methods. Sentence making. Kinds of printed word 
lessons. Meanings of printed words. Word seeing (graphs). Oral reading 
(phonograms). Written spelling. Oral spelling. Use of capitalization and 
punctuation in reading. Use of the dictionary. 

Method: Demonstration of the structure and functions of the brain as re- 
lated to reading. Observation of illustrative lessons. Report and discussion 
of the content and method of these lessons and of children's responses. 

Observation and grouping of errors in children's reading and spelling for 



20 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



instructive, corrective, and drill lessons. Illustration and analysis of prevailing 
methods of teaching reading and spelling. Comparison of manuals. 

Collection and classification of material for silent, oral, and drill reading in 
elementary grades. Planning lessons for imitative and original teaching. 
Modification of lessons to meet the needs of non-English speaking pupils. In- 
struction of retarded and advanced pupils, native or foreign born. 

English Language 3. Grammar. Mr. Eldridge. Miss Baright. 

First half of second year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly, out- 
side preparation, three to four periods weekly. The cultural elements are 
more prominent than the professional. 

Cultural. Aims: To teach the sentence as the expression of a thought, a 
judgment. To cultivate power of discrimination in hearing, reading, and 
making sentences. To establish correct grammatical standards as to sentence 
structure and word forms. To know English idioms as such. To fix correct 
grammatical habits. To train to think straight, to define accurately, to explain 
logically. To teach analysis of sentences as a means of appreciating literature. 

Content: Ideas and thoughts. Words and sentences. Thinking and speak- 
ing. Elements, complements, modifiers. Kinds of sentences. Analysis of sen- 
tences to judge correctness and definiteness of expression. Parts of speech, 
classes, and inflections. Substantives and modifiers. Verbs, complements, and 
modifiers. Participles and infinitives. Prepositions and conjunctions. Analy- 
ses of words in sentences to determine correctness of form and use. 

Emphasis on discernment and correction of personal errors in speech, in 
script. Intelligent use of principles, rules, and definitions. Cultivation of en- 
joyment of good usage. 

Method: Definite, logical, organized instruction to establish correct standards 
and habits. Constant observation, discussion, and correction by each student 
of his own language, of others' language. Tests to measure progress. 

Professional. Aims: To know children's language as a growing organism. 
To observe how grammatical usage is learned during childhood and youth. To 
discover the dawn of consciousness in the use of language and its effect on learn- 
ing and using language. 

To test the relative abilities of sensory and motor minded pupils to hear and 
see language as such. To observe the relation between poor use of English (oral 
and written) and habits of study, and to discover the causes thereof. 

To adapt instruction to types of mind, relative abilities, and interest in 
language. To illustrate ways and means of getting children to correct their own 
language. To cultivate children's interest in language as an art. 

To adjust instruction to establish correct word forms and sentence construc- 
tion in the speaking and writing of English-learning foreigners. 

Content: Grammatical elements peculiar to each phase of development. 
Effect of environment. What constitutes good usage to younger pupils, to older 
pupils. Pupils' errors as the chief source and occasion for grammatical instruc- 
tion. Kind and amount of systematic grammar profitable for older elementary 
pupils. Relative influence of illustrations and rules as guides to correct use. 
Relative importance of learning by imitation and instruction, in younger, in 
older grades. Peculiar interests and needs of non-English speaking pupils. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 21 



Method: Passive and active observation of the language of children and 
youth. Collection and classification of grammatical errors heard and seen. 
Observation of lessons taught by the regular teacher or the normal school in- 
structor. Reports and discussion of the methods and results. Imitative teach- 
ing. Writing lesson plana involving logical thinking. Teaching and criticism. 
Discussion of responses of and permanent effects on children. Tests of progress. 
Investigation of attention to grammatical errors in other lessons. Comparison 
of grammars and manuals. Modes of using courses of study and manuals. 

English Language 4. Composition. Miss Baright. 

This course accompanies each of the other English language courses. It 
occupies the equivalent of nineteen weeks; two periods weekly; outside 
preparation, two periods weekly. Oral composition is emphasized in con- 
nection with English 1 and 3; written composition in connection with 
English 2 and literature. The course is equally cultural and professional. 

Cultural. Aims: To induce habits of fluent and accurate, original and 
individual expression. To feel the aesthetic importance of fine arrangement. 
To think discriminatingly, connectedly, logically. To express adequately. To 
realize the dependence of progress in thought upon progress in expression. 
To promote social intercourse. 

Content: The standard of good usage. Diction. Structure of sentences, — 
use of complements and modifiers, grammatical agreement and reference; unity, 
order, co-ordination, subordination, parallelism, logical agreement, etc. Struc- 
ture of a composition, — unity, organization, coherence. Use of an expanding 
vocabulary. Analytical outlines. Letter writing. Arrangement of manuscript. 
Technical elements of expression. 

Method: Study of illustration. Preparation of outlines. Speaking with 
and without notes. Prepared and extemporary discussion. Writing exercises, 
— sentences, paragraphs, compositions. Correction of papers written by self, 
by others. Revision of typical papers. 

Professional. Aims (see English Language 1, oral language): To compare 
the ways in which children learn oral and written expression. To compare the 
written language of children from different home environments, from similar 
environments; of children of objective and subjective types. To discover 
which children base written expression on speech, which on reading; in younger 
grades, in older grades. 

To discover the relative importance of oral and written expression in promot- 
ing intelligence in younger children, in older children. To adapt instruction to 
the interests and needs of children at each stage of development. To base in- 
struction and practice on the present experiences of children. To discern typical 
errors, the conditions for making them, and modes of correction. 

To know that consciousness by each pupil of a definite useful purpose in the 
written expression is the most important motive in securing sustained effort. 
To know that the aesthetic appearance of a written paper is motivated for the 
most part by desire for approval. To know that progress in written composition 
depends almost wholly on the ability and habit of self-correction of daily efforts. 

Content: Conversation. Reproduction. Original composition, — spon- 
taneous remarks, description, narration, explanation, argument. Co-operative 



22 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



composition. Enlargement of sentences, condensations of paragraphs. Letters, 
— social and business. News items. Telegrams. Advertisements, etc. 

Comparative development of oral and written composition. Use of experi- 
ences, pictures, and text for suggestions. Use of summaries, questions, and 
topics to guide composition. Correction, — to what purpose, how, by whom, 
when, how often. Revision. Effects of correction and revision on spontaneity 
and originality. 

Method: Listening to children on formal and informal occasions. Observa- 
tion of instructive and of practice lessons. Conduct of similar exercises with 
individuals and groups of pupils. Analysis and report of pupils' speech and 
writing. 

Discussion of kinds of errors and modes of correction. Comparison of the 
oral and written products of the same pupil, of good and bad talkers; of good 
and bad writers. Discrimination of causes of good and bad work. 

Preparation of lesson plans for typical exercises. Comparison of manuals of 
instruction. Investigation of use of composition in connection with various 
school subjects. 

English Language 5. Ora-1 reading 1. Miss B aright. 

Second half of first year. Nineteen weeks; two periods weekly; outside 
preparation, one period weekly. This course is in direct sequence with 
English 1 and 2, and emphasizes reading as an art. Although the work 
is largely cultural the professional applications are made of each topic to 
facilitate early practice teaching. 

Aims (in addition to the aims described in English 1 and 2) : To think in- 
telligently, — to think ideas separately, in their group relations; to perceive 
their relative importance, to follow the development of the thought. To respond 
promptly and fully to the emotions described or suggested in the text. To 
imagine situations vividly and in detail. To understand thinking and feeling as 
causes of expression. To understand the body and voice as means of expression. 
To cultivate ease, grace, and dignity of poise. To use the voice correctly and 
effectively. 

To know what in children constitutes naturalness of expression, how to 
preserve it, how it is lost, how to recover it. To know the attitude towards oral 
reading of younger children, of older children, and the reasons therefor. To 
account for the variations in oral reading of sensory and motor minded pupils. 
To recognize the variation in oral reading due to defective sight or hearing, or to 
wrong use of the voice, or to speech habits. To adjust instruction to English- 
learning foreigners. 

Content (see English 1 and 2) : Conversation, — characteristics, comparison 
with oral reading, elements to be emphasized in oral reading. 

Story telling, — comparison with conversation and oral reading; from mem- 
ory and by aid of a book; types of stories and their characteristics; adaptation 
to the changing needs and interests of children; characteristics of a good story 
teller. 

Silent reading, — processes, intellectual and ethical effects, fundamental im- 
portance, effect on oral reading. 

Oral reading, — processes, purposes, characteristics, types of material for 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 23 



ipment, sources of material, causes of loss of power in 
pupils of older grades. 

Distinction between word lessons, oral reading, and reading drills. Individ- 
ual and group reading. Relation of the reader to other members of the class. 
iring for oral reading. Tests of successful reading. Reading 
drills, — kinds, purpose, time, devices. 

Method: Active participation by the normal school instructor with the 
students in conversation, telling anecdotes and stories, dramatization, and oral 
reading to exemplify ideals of fine and adequate expression. Practice by stu- 
dents to make all oral expression interpretative. Oral analysis of speech to 
prove intelligent grasp of thought. Oral exemplification of correct and incor- 
rect utterance. Observation of lessons with children, etc., as described in the 
methods of English Language 1 and 2. 

English Language 6. Oral reading 2. Miss Baright. 

Second half of second year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly; 
outside preparation, one or two periods weekly. This course is a direct con- 
tinuation of Reading 1, but emphasizes the professional more than the 
cultural aspect. 

Aims (see English 1, 2, and especially 5): To exemplify satisfactorily oral 
reading for each grade of children. To appreciate the kind and degree of emo- 
tional expression characteristic of children at different stages of development. 
To arouse children's pride in reading aloud. To give personal aid needed by 
individual children, and to adapt material and instruction thereto. To improve 
the quality and accuracy of each student's expression. To use oral reading to 
stimulate silent reading and to teach literature, adapting the same to the several 
types of pupils. To promote reading aloud at home. 

Content (in addition to Reading 1): Speaking, — extemporary reports and 
discussions of current events, recitation of memorized selections, original talks 
from outlines. Distinction between reciting, acting, and oral reading. Relative 
kind and amount of preparation for oral reading. Exercises for qualities of ex- 
pression as related to the thought and feeling. Exercises for accuracy in use of 
the voice as a mechanism. Modes of stimulating interest and effort in oral 
reading. 

Method: Observation of lessons, as described in the methods of antecedent 
courses. Active instruction of children, especially of those needing instruction. 
Discussion of results obtained, modifications necessary. Comparison of influ- 
ence of material selected by children and of contents of school readers. Prepa- 
ration for oral exercises on public occasions. 

English Language 7. Penmanship. Mrs. Couch. 
Second half of first year. Ten weeks; one period weekly; outside prep- 
aration, enough to attain the standard. Cultural and professional. 

Aim : Free, easy, legible, beautiful handwriting. Ability to teach penmanship. 
Content: Correct position of body, pencil, pen, and paper. Drills for move- 
ment and control. Length and frequency of drills. Application in other sub- 



24 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



jects. Gradual perfection of form. Motives to induce practice. Care of ink, 
pens, and paper. 

Method: Practice under imitation and direction. Persistent use in connec- 
tion with other subjects. 

Observation of pupils under instruction and at practice. Analysis of pupils' 
movements and papers. Discussion of variations and their causes. Organiza- 
tion of procedure in a series of grades. 



LITERATURE 

Literature. Miss Baright. 

Second year. Thirty-eight weeks; three periods weekly; outside prep- 
aration, three periods weekly. The course is equally cultural and profes- 
sional, the latter element being emphasized the second half year. 

Aims: To distinguish literature by its form and effect. To develop taste 
and enjoyment in reading literature. To desire to own literature. To use litera- 
ture to find and extend one's self, to give a new sense of truth, to develop appre- 
ciation of beauty, to enrich thinking, to intensify perception of and sympathy 
with all phases of life, to create and preserve ideals, to develop character, to give 
better knowledge of human nature, to vitalize thinking concerning common 
things. 

To show the relation of literature to social ideals, to history. To illustrate 
the natural and true approach to literature. To know the forms of literature 
and how to use literature to improve use of language. 

To show the characteristics of children to which literature must be adapted. 
To collect and classify literary material according to the needs of pupils in suc- 
cessive phases of development according to the requirements for special occa- 
sions. To use the library effectively. To become familiar with the best thought 
concerning the value and use of literature in schools. To teach how and when to 
use song and story in the instruction of children. To select literature for English- 
learning foreigners. 

Content: Works and lives of selected American and English authors. Works 
and lives of modern nature writers. Characteristics and development of the 
short story and lives of leading writers. Correlation of literature with other 
subjects. Function of literature in the education of children. 

Characteristics of folklore, fairy tales, fables, myths, legends; stories of 
physical prowess and heroism, nature and animal stories, tales of adventure, 
serious effort, and humorous stories; stories of intellectual and ethical heroism, 
of achievement, adventure, romance, chivalry; dramas. Testing of the effects 
of prose and poetrj', and interpretation by vocal expression. 

Methods of teaching literature according to its form and the maturity of the 
pupils. 

Opening exercises, — purpose, variety of interests, use of material, children's 
initiative, results. 

Method: Oral reading, story telling, and dramatization by the normal school 
instructor to exemplify fine ideals and standards; by the students, to strengthen 
and enlarge ideals and to learn correct habits of expression. Silent reading, in- 
vestigation, reports, and discussions. 



STATE XORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 25 



Observation and analysis of lessons taught by the normal instructor or the 
regular teachers. Writing of lesson plans for teaching by presentation and 
questioning, both in normal classes and at the training schools. Investigation 
of the outside reading of children and source of material; of use of school 
librari. 

MATHEMATICS 

Mathematics 1. Concrete geometry. Miss Searle. 
First half of first year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly; outside 
preparation, three periods weekly. 

Aims: To observe the untaught modes of construction by children. To 
perceive the natural order of project, use, form, measurement, and size. To 
perceive the natural place of drawing in project making. To discern the ap- 
pearance of mathematical reasoning and of definition. To judge of mathematical 
maturity as evidenced in projects. To find points of contact for definite in- 
struction in form, measurement, and size; concrete classification and demon- 
stration. 

Content: Observation of objects and processes used in construction by chil- 
dren and by mechanics; grouping according to form; usefulness of each form. 
Positions and relative positions of lines, surfaces, and solids. Use of straight- 
edge, plumb, level, and try-square. 

Concrete measurement and reasoning in finding area and volume. Making 
sketches, working drawings, and patterns on square-ruled and plain paper for 
the construction of geometrical objects and derived forms. Analysis, classifica- 
tion, and definition of figures and solids. 

Concrete demonstrations of elementary principles of geometry; growth of 
abstract demonstration; cultivation of mathematical English expression. 
Selection of projects and material according to needs and interests of children. 
Use of projects to motivate other subjects. Plans of lessons. 

Method: Personal observation and investigation of children at play, of 
mechanics at work; reports and discussions. Making, building, drawing to 
understand the scope and difficulty of projects. Study of geometrical forms 
from type solids, drawings, and architecture of the vicinity. Observation of 
children when taught by normal school instructor or by the teacher of the 
grades. Perception and record of plans in model lessons observed: Writing 
new lesson plans. 

Mathematics 2. Arithmetic. Miss Searle. 

Second half of first year. Nineteen weeks; five periods weekly: outside 
preparation, five periods weekly. 

Aims: To observe the numbers and number processes used by children apart 
from instruction. To base instruction on the knowledge and ability discovered 
in children. To adapt instruction to meet the conditions under which children 
use numbers in buying and selling, construction, and computation. To discern 
the appearance and promote the growth of mathematical reasoning. To use 
arithmetic to measure local, State, and Federal social conditions and the phe- 
nomena described in other subjects. 



26 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



Content: Observation of the conditions under which children use numbers 
apart from instruction. Organization of the number facts and processes com- 
monly used by children, by parents, by clerks, by mechanics, etc. Selection of 
projects for points of contact in teaching. Figuring and its relation to reason- 
ing. Analysis of problems, place and use of diagrams and formal explanations. 
Comparison of mathematical abilities of children and reasons for differences. 
Study of children's papers, textbooks, newspapers, reports, accounts. 

Method: Personal investigation by students. Reports and discussions. 
Preparation of illustrative material for teaching. Special trips to stores, banks, 
and offices. Drills in computation to secure accuracy and in solution of prob- 
lems to test reasoning. Observation of model lessons. Writing lesson plans. 
Comparison of textbooks. 

GEOGRAPHY 

Geography. Mr. Eldridge. 

First half of second year. Nineteen weeks; four periods weekly; outside 
preparation, eight periods weekly. 

Second half of second year. Nineteen weeks; two periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, four periods weekly. 

Aims: To observe definitely the geographical phenomena of the locality. 
To imagine distant phenomena clearly by definite use of local observations. 
To reason from cause to effect. To organize and locate the geographical facts 
necessary for intelligence as to current events. To observe the responses made 
to geographical phenomena by children in their several stages of development. 
To base instruction on the personal experiences of pupils. 

Content: Local geography, — features most prominent, most used by chil- 
dren, most important to the welfare of the citizens. Representation by sand 
modeling, map sketching. Reading of local maps. Use of the school and home 
gardens for learning elementary facts of agriculture. 

Travel geography, — comparison of distant places and people with local con- 
ditions, careful study of type regions and activities. Earth as a whole, — 
relief, drainage, climate, productive areas, populous areas, means of communica- 
tion. Kinds and uses of maps, globes, and text. Place of map drawing and 
editing. 

Comparative study of continental features and activities. Detailed study of 
Massachusetts and the United States. Great nations, — their importance, in- 
fluence of geographic environment, interdependence of peoples. 

Method: Numerous class trips for careful observation of geographical fea- 
tures. Special investigations. Reports and discussions of observed phenom- 
ena and of their relation to children's study. 

Laboratory experiments to illustrate and explain causal relations. Personal 
practice in sand modeling, map drawing, and map reading. Comparison of 
textbooks, supplementary reading, and maps to find their appropriate place and 
use. Collection and arrangement of illustrative material. Observation and 
analysis of model lessons. Adaptation of lesson plans to maturity of children. 



ST ATI-: NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 27 



HISTORY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE 

History and Social Science 1. American history. Mr. Smith. 
First half of second year. Twelve weeks; four periods weekly; outside 
preparation, five periods weekly. 

Aims: To distinguish the phases of human endeavor which are of most inter- 

■ children at their several Btages of development. To adapt instruction to 

the maturity of pupils. To cultivate interest and initiative in historical reading. 

To inculcate ideals of patriotism based on social justice. To realize that a State 

ion is the creation of the people or is what the people permit or tolerate, 

and depends on the education given children and youth. 

-er vance of historical holidays. Stories of primitive life. Fairy 

9, myths, and Legends. Stories of physical prowess, — explorers, settlers, 

soldiers, sailors, etc. Stories of intellectual conquest, — inventors, builders, 

merchants, statesmen, authors, etc. Stories of moral heroism and other elements 

of character. (These topics are considered more fully in connection with the 

in literature.) 

1 history and its relation to local geography. Growth of the United 
-. — territorial, industrial, political, social. Interstate and international 
relations. Relative importance of chronological and causal sequences. (These 
topics are treated in detail for use in older grades.) 

Method: Observational trips to places of historical interest. Reports and 

-ions of historical features of importance to children. 
Critical consideration of the relative value of historical stories and textbooks; 
of pictures and maps. Collection and arrangement of illustrative material. 

rvation of model lessons. Writing lesson plans for types of instruction. 
Adaptation of methods to secure initiative and interest in historical reading; in 
current events. Conduct of trips, recitations, and discussions. 

History and Social Science 2. Civics. Mr. Smith. 

First half of first year. Seven weeks; four periods weekly; outside prep- 
aration, five periods weekly. The study of civics is in part contemporary 
with the study of American history and in part follows that course. The 
subject is more cultural than professional. 

Aims: To recognize and define the social problems of the day in rural and 
urban communities and in different States and Nations. To trace the course of 
prominent social movements. To know present-day methods of solving these 
problems. To feel personal responsibility for social welfare. To investigate the 
intelligence and moral attitude of children as to social problems. To distinguish 
between the effects of knowing about and of practicing citizenship. 

Content: Interrelations of institutions, — family, school, church, town, city, 
State, Nation, and society. Opportunity for the individual. Relations of labor 
and capital; of capital and politics. Responsibility of society for protection of 
health, care of the poor, prevention of ignorance, poverty, and crime. Responsi- 
bility of the public school for development of moral intelligence. Consideration 
of topics that can be taken up profitably with children in the grades. 



28 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



Method: Observational trips by individuals, groups, and classes to various 
residence districts; to public buildings, especially the city or town hall, police 
station and court room, fire houses, hospital, waterworks, library, mills, stores, 
markets, etc. Practice at the training schools in promoting better and more 
active citizenship. Reading and discussion of contemporaneous books and 
magazine articles. Reports of observed socializing instruction in rural and 
urban schools. Discussion of practicable methods for interesting parents in 
making schools centers of socializing work. 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION 

Physical Education 1. Hygiene. Miss Skeele. 
First half of first year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly; outside 
preparation, two periods weekly. 

Aims: To understand the elementary facts of the structure, function, and 
care of children's bodies. To feel personal responsibility for the physical wel- 
fare of children. To use methods that result in the formation of health habits 
and respect for the laws of health. 

Content: Objective study of organs and tissues to insure right knowledge of 
the simpler structures and functions of the human body. Recognition of the 
physical characteristics of children peculiar to each stage of development. Ob- 
servation of children to discover normal and abnormal conditions of health. 
Investigation of conditions in the schoolroom, on the playground, and in the 
home environment which produce normal and abnormal conditions. 

Discrimination of facts of structure, function, and hygiene stimulating in chil- 
dren the practice of health habits, and necessary to parents and teachers in order 
to take intelligent care of children. The topics treated in detail are vision, hear- 
ing, posture; teeth, nose, throat, skin, hair; clothing, drinking cups, and towels; 
cleanliness; ventilation; emergencies; use of tobacco and alcoholic liquors, 
signs of contagious diseases, bacteria. Selection of material and methods of 
teaching that result in health habits and respect for the laws of health. 

Method: Reference to knowledge gained by personal experience in ill health, 
in caring for children or the sick, and by observation of parts of lower animals 
seen at home or in the market. Reference to personal conditions made manifest 
by the entrance physical examination. Observational study of shank of beef, 
haslet, skeleton; manikin, models of brain, eye, ear, respiratory tract, and pelvic 
cavity; pictures and diagrams, microscopic slides. Observation of instruction 
of children by the instructor in hygiene and by the teachers at the training 
schools. Perception of plans in lessons observed. Writing lesson plans. Expo- 
sition of materials and methods, collected and arranged for use with children. 
Discussion of the relation of hygiene to social welfare. 

Physical Education 2. Gymnastics 1. Miss Skeele. 
First year. Thirty-eight weeks; three periods weekly; outside prepara- 
tion, occasional. 

Aims: To enjoy playing games, dances, and other exercises, indoors and out- 
doors. To understand children's need of physical activity and to sympathize 
with their play spirit. To improve health of body and vigor of mind; posture 
and carriage. To discern the effects of social games upon social ideals. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT XORTH ADAMS 29 



Content: Games, dances, :nul other cxerri<e< adapted to students for chil- 
dren. f<>r indoor and outdoor use. Corrective exercises adapted to school con- 
ditions. Apparatus work suitable for playground instruction. Adaptation of 
exeri ■;- ad sex; to rostriotions of schoolrooms and playgrounds. I 

raph record-. Use of language in directing exercise. 

Ifethod: Active play. Observation of and playing with children. Imita- 
tive teaching Umpiring games, etc. Observation and discussion of children of 
tonal of CT O TTane . of adaptations, of influence of school on home play and work. 

Physical Education 3. Gymnastics 2. Miss Skeele. 

nd year. Thirty-eijiht weeks; three periods weekly; outside prep- 
aration, occasional. 

Aims (see Gymnastics 1): To acquire skill in conducting corrective exer- 
folk dance-, and gan 
tent: As de s cri bed for Gymnastics 1. 
Method: As described for Gymnastics 1; also, observation of instruction by 
the normal school instructor; by the teachers of the grades. Practice teaching 
with and without immediate supervision. Playground direction. 



PRACTICAL SCIENCE 

Practical Science 1. Sanitation. Miss Yarrell. 

>nd half of first year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, three periods weekly. 

Aims: To practice cleanliness and order in the care of personal and school 
property. To teach children why cleanliness and order are necessary, and to 
take responsible care of school and personal property. To adapt instruction to 
the successive abilities of children to practice sanitation. To promote helpful- 
ness of children in making their homes and neighborhoods safer. 

Content: Dust, its dangers, prevention; use of water in cleaning; soaps and 
other cleaning agents; removal of stains; disposal of waste; sewage, use of 
wood, coal, gas, and kerosene stoves; lighting and ventilating of schoolrooms; 
care of clothing at school. 

Principles of science on which modern sanitary processes are based. 

Application of these principles in the care of floors, walls, windows, desks, 
.sinks, stoves, utensils, closets, and coat rooms; books, apparatus, supplies; 
grounds, toilets; disposal of waste; prevention of flies; heating, lighting, and 
ventilation. 

Method: Laboratory experiments. Inspection and discussion of schools. 
Practice in school housekeeping. Supervision of children. Practice demonstra- 
tion. Special trips to study water supply, generation of gas and electricity, 
modes of heating and ventilating. 



Practical Science 2. Plant life. Mr. Smith. 

First half of first year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly; outside 
preparation, two periods weekly. 



30 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



Aims: To know plants as developing organisms. To understand their func- 
tion in nature. To appreciate their influence on human life. To observe the 
responses to plant life by children at their various stages of development. To 
adapt instruction to the successive interests and needs of children. To promote 
home gardening. To stimulate economy and thrift. 

Content: Soils, — composition and relation to plant growth. Relation of 
heat, moisture, and light to plant growth. Bulbs, — parts, growth; educational 
importance. Greenwood cuttings. Grafts. Structure, function, habit, and 
habitat of familiar plants. Food plants. Ornamental plants. Common trees, 
shrubs; useful and ornamental. Relation of plants to all animal life. Plants 
interesting to children. Organization of subject and illustrative material. 
Correlation with geography and drawing. 

Method: Observation of soils and plants in natural location. Experiments 
on soils and plants. Growing bulbs and cuttings. Transplanting full-grown 
plants for winter use. Dissection of plants at various stages of growth. Ob- 
servation of plant models and diagrams. Use of garden catalogs and magazines; 
textbooks; poetry. Observation and discussion of model lessons; of children 
at work with plants. Planning of type lessons. Differentiation for rural 
schools. 



Practical Science 3. Animal life. Mr. Smith. 
First half of second year. Nineteen weeks; two periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, two periods weekly. 

Aims: To know animals as developing organisms. To understand their 
function in nature. To appreciate their influence on human life. To observe 
the responses to animal life by children at their various stages of development. 
To adapt instruction to the successive interests and needs of children. To pro- 
mote kindness to animals and protection to human beings. 

Content: Animals prominent in the interests or needs of children. Charac- 
teristics, habits, and habitat of animals. Animals useful or injurious to plants 
or human beings. Prevention of injurious animals. Protection of useful ani- 
mals. Care of domestic animals. Attitude toward wild animals. Organiza- 
tion of lessons according to the maturity of children and the environment. Col- 
lection and arrangement of illustrative material. Correlation with gardening, 
geography, civics (State law). 

Method: Observation of children at play or work with animals. Observa- 
tion of animals in their usual environment, whether at large or in confinement; 
individual trips and class excursions. Special observation in the school garden, 
at neighboring farms and stables, and at occasional menageries. Experiment; 
in the schoolroom and study of models and diagrams. Collection and discussion 
of use of catalogs, magazines, pictures, stories, and textbooks. Observation dis- 
cussion of model lessons. Planning of similar lessons. Differentiation of con- 
tent and method according to maturity of children and environment. 



8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 31 



PRACTICAL ARTS 

Practical Arts 1. Handicraft. Miss Lamphebb. 

First year. Twelve weeks; three periods weekly; outside preparation, 
one period weekly; opportunity for extra work after sessions. 

Aim: To teach the technique of such handicraft as can be done profitably in 
the elementary grades. To make each object beautiful in that it is "the fit and 
successful embodiment of an idea in outward form." 

Articles: Based on school and home uses. Reed and raffia are used in mak- 
ing baskets, napkin rings, table mats, boxes, etc. Cardboard, paper, and cloth 
are used in making memorandum pads, binders, portfolios, etc. Chair seating 
iied to school and home chairs. Knitting is used for making face cloths, 
wristers, etc. Modifications are made to meet any needs of rural schools. 

Method: Actual making of articles. Observation of children at work and of 
their products. Writing lesson plans. Practice teaching according to object 
and skill of the student. 

Practical Arts 2. Handicraft 2. Miss Pearson. 
First year. Twelve weeks; three periods weekly; outside preparation, 
one-half period weekly. 

Aims: To teach the technique of paper tearing, paper cutting, paper con- 
struction, stenciling, arranging, mounting. To appreciate and cultivate chil- 
dren's aesthetic endeavors in construction. To realize the intelligence and skill 
necessary for artistic results. 

Content : Paper tearing, — symbols of objects appropriate for picture story 
telling. Paper cutting, — symbols for picture story telling; animals that will 
stand; calendar mounts; dramatic accessories. Paper construction, — en- 
velopes, boxes, covers, baskets, valentines, sand-table objects, lamp shades, etc. 
Mounting of pictures. Stencil cutting and stenciling. Arrangement on bul- 
letin boards. Arrangement of room furnishings. 

Method: Actual making of articles. Observation of children at work and 

of their products. Discussion of artistic values of objects made; adaptation 

to other subjects. Lesson planning. Adaptation of methods and devices. 

ing children and practice teaching according to the object and the ability 

of the student. 

Practical Arts 3. Handicraft 3. Woodworking. Mr. Cummixgs. 
First year. Twelve weeks; three periods weekly; outside preparation, 
one period fortnightly; opportunity for extra work after sessions. 

Aim s: To use woodworking tools and the fundamental processes. To make 
each object beautiful in that it is "the fit and successful embodiment of an 
idea in outward form." To appreciate the constructive activities of boys in 
middle and upper grades. To understand the intelligence and skill necessary 
for successful results. 

Content: The articles made are based on school and home uses, and on play. 



32 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



With the coping saw are made map and picture puzzles, frames, furniture, 
animals, carts, windmills, etc. 

With the carpenter's tools are made bookshelves, book ends, bookcases, 
boxes, screens, picture frames, stools, stands, tables, chairs, etc. 

Taking apart and assembling. Replacing broken window glass. Staining, 
varnishing, waxing, painting. 

Method: Actual making of articles. Observation of boys at work. Obser- 
vation of products made by children; by manufacturers. Use of drawings. 
Discussion of methods of teaching and adaptation to rural schools. Lesson 
planning. Practice teaching according to the object and the ability of the 
student. 

Practical Arts 4. Gardening. Mr. Smith. 

Second half of first year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, three periods weekly. This course must be preceded by 
Practical Science 2, plant life. 

Aims: To practice gardening. To cultivate personal interest in growing 
things. To increase foresight and responsibility peculiar to the care of living 
things. To feel the satisfaction of effort and the beauty of product. To econo- 
mize material and labor. To appreciate the fundamental value of agriculture 
and the need of scientific procedure. To observe the variation in native interests 
of children toward gardening, according to phases of development and condi- 
tions of environment. To differentiate kind and method of work to meet the 
variations in children and in locality. 

Content: Planning and laying out individual gardens, 4| by 15 feet. Prepa- 
ration of soil, use of fertilizer, tillage. 

Seed testing, germination, thinning, transplanting, use of cold-frame and hot- 
bed, setting out. Planting, cultivating, harvesting, marketing, clearing, and 
composting. Study of farm machinery and processes. 

Variation in kind of gardening according to maturity of children; imita- 
tive, instructive, elective; individual and group commercial gardens. Experi- 
mental plots. Home gardens. Correlation with arithmetic, geography, history, 
and drawing. 

Method: Actual gardening by each student. Observation of interest and 
skill of students and children; of effects of climate and care on growth and 
products. Competitive exhibition of flowers and vegetables at the local fair. 
Inspection of home gardens; reports and discussions of observations. Discus- 
sion of the importance of home gardens. Adaptations for rural and urban 
schools. Use of government publications. Observation of model lessons. 
Writing lesson plans. Assisting in the school gardens. 

Practical Arts 5. Cooking 1. Miss Varrell. 
First half of second year. Nineteen weeks; two periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, occasional. 

Aims: To conduct the noon lunch of school children. To teach cooking in 
rural schools as regular work; to cook what can be practiced ordinarily in homes; 
to use cooking to motivate other school activities. To cultivate pride in helping 



8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 33 



at home. To place standards of cleanliness, economy, and beauty before 
children. 

Content: Simple cookery whereby children can help at home. Character- 
istics of foodstuffs. Selection of foods and method of cooking. Selection of 
recipes for use at the noon lunch. Choice of a simple cooking equipment for a 
rural school. 

Method: Actual cooking processes to be used in rural schools and homes. 
Use of kerosene, wood, coal, and gas stoves; of rural school equipment. Sel I ing 
table, serving, clearing the table, and washing of dishes. Experiment^ \<> 
explain principles of food preparation. Observation and instruction of children 
at noon lunches and cooking exercises. Discussion of methods of teaching with 
tin- simple equipment. Special trips to stores and markets, dormitory kitchen, 
and supply rooms. 

Practical Arts 6. Cooking 2. Miss Varrell. 

First half of second year. Nineteen weeks; two periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, one period weekly. A special course open only to pupils 
of proved superior intelligence and administrative ability. 

Aims: To teach cooking in the more highly developed rural or semi-rural 
schools. To secure more effective practice of cleanliness, thrift, and good taste 
by children at home. To motivate lessons in health, arithmetic, geography, 
and good manners. To work intimately and confidently in mothers' clubs, etc. 

Content (Extension of Cooking 1) : Comparative nutritive value and digest- 
ibility of foodstuffs. Proper food for children of school age. Economical use of 
food; adaptation to materials and money available. Planning of simple whole- 
some meals suitable for children. 

Sale of foods cooked at school and expenditure of the money for school im- 
provements — account of cost receipts, and expenditures, profit. 

Method: Extended personal practice in cooking and serving. Special prac- 
tice teaching in rural and urban training schools. Reading and discussion of 
such work now being done in more distant schools. Special trips to bakeries, 
refrigerators, and fruit houses. 

Practical Arts 7. Sewing 1. Miss Varrell. 

Second half of second year. Nineteen weeks; two periods weekly. 

Aims: To ascertain what objects each pupil sews, who sews at home and how, 
what objects are made at home, what are bought. To teach sewing as a part 
of the regular work. To use sewing to motivate other school subjects. To 
cultivate pride in helping at home. To set standards of economy and good 
taste before children. 

Content: Repairing clothing belonging to self or others; other articles. 
Making new articles for wear or house use. Taking care of under and outer 
garments. 

Adaptation of clothing of the teacher to the schoolroom and pleasure of chil- 
dren. Comparison of courses of work and methods of teaching for rural schools. 

Method: Actual sewing processes to be used in rural schools and homes. 
Machine sewing; care of machine. Using patterns. Distinguishing textiles. 

Observation of children at work and of their product-. Instruction of chil- 
dren. Special trips to dry-goods stores. Study of a course in sewing. 



34 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



Practical Arts 8. Sewing 2. Miss Varrell. 

Second half of second year. Nineteen weeks; two periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, one period weekly. A special course open only to pupils 
of proved superior intelligence and administrative ability. 

Aims: To teach sewing in well-developed rural or semi-rural schools. To 
induce more effective help by children at home; to motivate lessons in health, 
arithmetic, color, and good taste; to work more intimately and acceptably in 
mothers' clubs and similar organizations. 

Content (Extension of Sewing 1) : Characteristics of different textiles. Com- 
parative durability and cost of materials. Selection of projects according to 
the needs and abilities of children. Choice of materials for personal use. 
Adaptation for use, ornament, and style. Making of articles for school use. 

Method: Extended personal practice in sewing, by hand and machine. 
Measuring, drafting, and cutting patterns. Modifying of patterns bought. 

Special practice teaching in rural and urban training schools. Observation, 
reading, and discussion of work in distant schools. Special trips to depart- 
ment stores and millinery shops. 

DRAWING 

Drawing 1. Miss Pearson. 

First year. Thirty-eight weeks; three periods weekly; outside prepara- 
tion, occasional. 

Aims: To draw freely, spontaneously, and with skill. To appreciate the 
beauty of plant and animal forms, of color and form in the landscape, and of 
good design in architecture and interior decoration. To understand what is in 
good taste aesthetically. To know and enjoy examples of fine art. To know 
the natural responses of children, at their several stages of development, to 
beauty and to the elements of art. To study the instinctive efforts of children 
to express experiences by modeling, drawing, and coloring; and to use these 
methods for practical and for aesthetic purposes. To teach children to get 
keener appreciation of fine art by attempting to express beauty by drawing, 
color, and design. 

Content: Color, — discrimination of color and appreciation of harmony; the 
spectrum, tints, shades, hues, tones, values, scales, and charts; study of fruits, 
vegetables, trees, and landscapes. 

Representation, — effects of distance and level upon the appearance of ob- 
jects; foreshortening of hemispherical, conical, and cylindrical objects; vase 
forms; illustrative drawing; mechanical drawing of patterns and of views of 
objects; hand lettering. 

Design, — development of decorative units from plant forms; border, surface, 
and radial arrangements to express rhythm, balance, and harmony of shape and 
line; interpretation of natural forms in terms of design. 

Fine art, — enjoyment through play of the imagination; recognition of dom- 
inant art principles; acquaintance with subjects appropriate to the calendar 
months. 

Method: Typical lessons for understanding of subject-matter and demon- 
stration of processes, followed by much practice to fix correct habits and to pro- 
duce skill. 



8TATB NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTE ADA Ms ;;;, 



(7m of crayon, pencil, and brush in sketching appearance, recording observa- 
tion.-, and illustration. Painting by the floated method. Mechanical drawing 
of patterns and views of objects. Blackboard drawing. 

Analysis of objects and arrangements to find the principles of arl used, 
oing and applying decoration to constructed objects, study of children's 
produ 

Oral analysis by students of the teacher's plan as to content, distribution and 

material, and method of instruction. Observation of model lessons with 
children to illustrate phases of the subject, methods of instruction, responses by 
children, and methods of criticism. Writing plans of lessons observed and of 
similar lessons. Imitative teaching of children, according to the ability of the 
student. 

Drawing 2. Miss Pearson*. 

First half of second year. Nineteen weeks; three periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, occasional. 

Aims: As described in the previous course. 

Content: Color, — harmonies of color; interrelation of line, value, and in- 
tensity; complementary and analogous schemes of color in flower arrangement, 
dress, interior furnishings and decorations, exteriors; effects of light and shade 
and of backgrounds upon decorative effects. 

Representation, — discrimination of shape and proportion in the appearance 
of objects, with particular attention to use of invisible edges, axes, and diagonals; 
appreciation of beauty of form; landscape composition; pictorial arrangement; 
figure drawing. 

Design, — judgment of objects, decorations, and arrangements according to 
elements of rhythm, balance, spacing, and appropriateness; appreciation of 
beauty of design in decoration; adaptation of plant and animal forms and of 
abstract spots in problems of design. 

Fine art, — enjoyment of the emotion of beauty and the play of imagination 
excited by fine art; cultivation of aesthetic judgment; acquaintance with fine 
art as found in schoolroom decorations, home furnishings, local architecture, 
reproductions of masterpieces. 

Method (the ways specified in the previous course): Flower arrangement 
in dishes; choices for fitness of shape, color, and position. Collecting and 
arranging examples of good coloring, — pictures, dress goods, wall papers, 
hangings, and small decorations. Selecting, mounting, framing, and hanging 
of pictures. 

Designing and decorating model interiors and exteriors. Application of 
principles of art to rooms in the training schools, dormitory, and homes of the 
students. Visits to homes, museums, and stores for study of art value and 
selling price. 

Writing lesson plans of type forms of work. Practice teaching of projects 
most easy of introduction. Analysis of a course in drawing for elementary 
grades. 



36 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



MUSIC 

Music 1. Miss Searle. 

First half of first year. Nineteen weeks; four periods weekly; outside 
preparation, fifteen minutes daily. 

Aims: To hear and understand music. To sing by rote and by note. To 
ascertain the musical environment of children apart from school, — what songs 
and instruments are heard. To ascertain the musical activities of pupils apart 
from school, — what songs are sung, what instruments are played, what grapho- 
phone records are used. To observe these musical activities of children at 
different stages of development, and to make these the points of contact in 
instruction. To compare methods of teaching to read and to sing. To cultivate 
love and appreciation of good music and to understand its social power. To 
select and procure music for community singing. 

Content: What, why, and how children sing at the various stages of develop- 
ment. Qualities of children's voices. Elements of music; their relative promi- 
nence in children's singing. Progression in rote singing. Progression in use of 
notation. Selection and arrangement of songs to meet special conditions. 
Recognition of musical forms. Acquaintance with fine music, prominent artists 
and composers. Influence of music on the community. 

Method: Observation of children's singing. Testing ability to hear and 
reproduce musical elements. Discussion of adaptation of music to ability. 
Steps in teaching rote songs; notation. Use of singing books. Singing alone; 
in groups. Writing lesson plans. Comparison of various methods in vogue. 
Use of the phonograph. 

Music 2. Miss Searle. 

Chorus singing, — through two years; averages one period weekly. 
Recital, — through two years; averages twenty minutes weekly. 
Glee Club, — through two years; averages one and a half periods weekly; 
one annual concert. 

EDUCATION 

Education 1. Child study. Mrs. Couch. 

First year. Twenty-eight weeks; one period weekly; outside prepa- 
ration, one period weekly. 

Aims: To impress these standards of education: Children, not subjects, are 
of paramount importance. Development of children is the fundamental motive 
in education. Interdependence of body and mind is the occasion of great varia- 
tion in the activities of every child. Variation in kinds and degrees of activity 
in the schoolroom, on the playground, and at home. Interpretation of the 
appearance and activities of children is the basis of safe adaptation of instruc- 
tion and control. 

Content: Discovery of prominent instincts in individuals; of social tenden- 
cies of groups. Characteristics of the several phases of development of chil- 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 37 



drcn. Temperaments. Effect of environment. Relative strength of the 
sory activities. Prominent intellectual activities. Individual and class needs 
and modes of satisfying them. Arrested development, its cause, prevention, 
and cure. 

Method: Observation while conducting some activity; while children are 
active under another teacher; while children are engaged in "seat work," or in 
free play, or in marching. Reports and discussions of experiences of students. 
Visitation of neighboring schools. 



Education 2. Psychology. Mr. Murdock. 

Second half of second year. Nineteen weeks; five periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, five periods weekly. 

Aims: To comprehend the biological and sociological fundamentals of edu- 
cation. To know and treat children as developing organisms, products of 
heredity and environment. To understand physical, mental, and moral edu- 
cation, each as a growing process with characteristic stages of development. 
To comprehend the dependence of mental processes upon brain functions. To 
discriminate the principles of education based on the development of children. 
To discern the present influence of these principles. 

Content: The comparative study of animals and human beings. 

Heredity, — its physical basis, and what can be inherited. 

Instincts, — classes, appearance, transitoriousness, variability, modification. 

Consciousness. Mind, — biological, human. Education as the adjustment 
of environment to development. Physical development and education. Mental 
development and education. Moral development and education. 

Phases of development, — early childhood, later childhood, adolescence. 
Educational adjustments based on the development of children. Principles of 
education, — pedagogical, administrative. 

Method: Recollection of personal experiences and of observations, reading; 
reports, comparisons, and discriminations of fundamentals. Daily illustrations 
from work observed in training and other schools; daily applications thereto. 
Conclusions in connection with each biological and sociological element as to 
the educational adjustment necessary. Consideration of changes in self and in 
society due to present-day application of biological principles of education. 
Discussion of ways and means of applying these principles of education in 
public schools first taught by graduates of the normal school. 

Education 3. History of education. Mr. Eldridge. 
Second half of second year. Nineteen weeks; one period weekly; out- 
side preparation, one to two periods weekly. 

Aims: To select those old and new principles of education which teachers 
personally should apply in the instruction and control of children. To trace 
the development and application of these principles. To realize their importance 
because of their tested truth. To feel the responsibility of applying these 
principles and of judging results thereby. 



38 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



Content: Analysis of personal experiences and of observed instruction to 
find the fundamental principles which direct successful teaching and wise con- 
trol. Grouping of these principles according to child nature, environment, and 
subject. Tracing the origin, growth, and present-day importance of these prin- 
ciples. Comparing the permanent contributions of Comenius, Rousseau, Pesta- 
lozzi, Herbart, Frobel, Spencer, Hall. Tracing the principles of administration 
to their formulation in the school laws and practices of to-day. 

Method: Reports of personal experiences and observation of work at the 
training schools and elsewhere. Discussion to clarify the principles. Research 
to trace development of principles. Special presentations of the work of the 
great educators. Discussion of present-day problems. 

Education 4. Management. Mrs. Couch. 

Second year. Thirty-eight weeks; one period weekly; outside prepa- 
ration, one period weekly. 

Aims: To know the organization and conduct of a school as an independent 
unit and as a part of a school system. To know the principles, laws, and rules 
which control modes of procedure. To observe and participate in school man- 
agement conducted by classes organized to this end. To distinguish the op- 
tional elements which may prevail in the management of a class from the com- 
pulsory elements necessary to the welfare of the system. To judge how the 
system works to the advantage and disadvantage of pupils. 

Content: Preparations for organizing a school new to the teacher. Steps in 
opening the new school. Formation of classes. Making a program. 

Room arrangements for conduct of recitations. Provisions to secure orderly 
movements of pupils. School government, — rights and duties of teacher and 
pupils. Disorder, — what it is and its causes. Means of avoiding disorder. 

Rules and regulations, — kinds, reasons therefor, by whom made, number. 
Punishment, — when and why necessary, kinds, principles underlying choice of 
kind and mode of infliction, effect produced. 

Keeping of school records and care of school property. Relations to higher 
officers; to the parents and the community. Effect of teacher's personality, 
dress, manner, spirit. 

Method: Recollection of early school habits. Observation at the training 
and other schools. Experiences in administration and instruction. Comparison 
of observations. Reading of stories of school life; of practical treatises. Con- 
clusions and applications. Active administrative practice at the training school. 

Education 5. Kindergarten theory and method. Mrs. Graves. 
Second year. Thirty-eight weeks; three periods weekly; outside prepa- 
ration, three periods weekly. 

This is a special course for preparing students to teach in primary grades. 
Students are admitted to this course on the basis of adaptability to younger 
children as evidenced in the practice teaching of the first year. Ability to sing 
and to play some musical instrument is a prominent qualification. Students 
who desire to take this course will have special opportunities to observe in 
younger grades during the first year. 



STATE NORMAL school AT NORTH ADAMS 39 



Aims: To interpret the activities of children individually. To distinguish 

of various environments on young children. To realise the complete 

dependence of younger children on the environment of home, neighborhood, and 

To quicken sympathetic understanding, to increase versatility in 

adaptation, to improve foresighl in planning kind and sequence of work. To 

indicate the natural transition to deformalized primary work. 

Content: Instinctive activities predominant in early childhood. Compara- 
tive development of spontaneity and inhibition. 

Play, — function, kinds, selection, and adaptation to maturity; Probel's 
plays as related to primary pupils. 

Games, — distinction from play in general, function, kinds, adaptation to 
maturity of children and to school environment; comparative study of plays 
and games of children of different races and nation-. 

Symbolism, — ideas which children symbolise, natural and conventional 
Symbols, progressive in use of conventional symbols; effective of prevention 
of s y mbolic play. 

Comparison of Frobel's gifts, Montessori apparatus, and corresponding ma- 
terial available in the immediate environment. Function of fairy stories, myths, 
and legends. 

Similarity and continuity of characteristics of children in kindergarten and 
primary grades; variation in predominant characteristics from grade to grade. 

Method: Special observation and instruction of children. Reading and re- 
ports thereon. Discussions and conclusions as to pertinence of biological prin- 
ciples in the education of young children, danger of stereotyped methods, variety 
in equipment. Planning of lessons to cultivate the instinctive tendencies of 
children, to meet seasonal changes of nature, to make the best uses of the imme- 
diate environment. Practice teaching in kindergarten and primary grades. 



Education 6. Practice Teaching 1. 

First half of first year. Nineteen weeks, including assignments to four or 
more rooms; four periods weekly; outside preparation, four periods weekly. 

Aims: To get acquainted with children of varying degrees of maturity, of 
different social environments, and of several nationalities. To interpret the 
activities of children for purposes of instruction and control. To learn methods 
of direction and control in accordance with children's instincts. To understand 
the adaptation of instruction to the needs of pupils. To get experience with 
which to understand the instruction given by normal school teachers. 

Content: Activities recalled from experiences of childhood and approved for 
practice. Activities of the regular teacher which can be correctly imitated. 
Conversations, dramatizing, story telling, singing, pronouncing, dictation, mak- 
ing change, etc. Use of materials, — objects, pictures, puzzles, sand, clay, 
blocks, etc. 

Method: Observation in particular of the individual or group assigned, in 
general of the whole class, while they are at work with the regular or a student 
teacher. Observation of the teacher's personality, dress, attitude toward pupils, 
mode of instruction and administration. Assisting in distribution and collec- 
tion of material, care of desk, blackboard, closets, cloak room, etc. 

Observation of children at work with "seat material," to find their peculiar 



40 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



modes of operation and the reasons therefor. Instruction when appropriate. 
Analysis of children's products, correction of papers, preparation of teaching 
material. 

Teaching and playing games, dances, gymnastics, indoors and outdoors. 
Imitative instruction of pupils assigned for special aid, individuals or groups 
in any convenient place. Control of pupils at time of entering or leaving. 

Oral and written reports to and conferences with the regular teacher. 

Education 7. Practice Teaching 2. 

Second half of first year. Nineteen weeks, including assignments to four 
or more rooms; four periods weekly; outside preparation, four periods 
weekly. 

Aims (as for Practice Teaching 1) : To know more children along familiar lines 
of work. To know more activities of familiar pupils. To feel confident and 
easy when conducting familiar imitative work with larger groups and whole 



To perceive and report the plans evident in lessons taught by the regular 
teacher. To imitate such lessons in plan and practice, and to modify such 
lessons when sufficient skill is attained. 

To know the variety and value of material used for self-education. To 
discover the proper connection of instruction and self-education in the school 
procedures. To observe and participate in administration in order to measure 
its value and difficulty. 

Content (exercises described for Practice Teaching 1) : Collection of data for 
instruction from the speech, script, drawings, and products of pupils. Drills for 
accuracy and speed derived from arithmetic, geography, elementary language, 
grammar. Imitative instruction in practical arts, gymnastics, study of pictures, 
reading, spelling, etc. 

Method (modes of work described for Practice Teaching 1) : Practice of 
writing and drawing on the blackboard. Preparation of illustrative teaching 
material. Assisting in the conduct of exercises on special occasions. Manage- 
ment of pupils at recesses. Drills and imitative instruction. Teaching of 
backward pupils. Participation in opening exercises. 

Education 8. Practice Teaching 3. 

First half of second year. Six weeks; one or two assignments; eighteen 
periods weekly; outside preparation, eighteen periods weekly. 

Aims (as for Practice Teaching 1 and 2) : To know the movement of a school 
throughout a session. To discover the intellectual types and prevailing inter- 
ests. To observe the adaptations made to meet the different abilities of pupils. 
To write lesson plans emphasizing these adaptations. To hold the attention of 
pupils not spontaneously interested. To observe and to account for the teacher's 
mode of dealing with misdemeanors. 

Content (exercises described for Practice Teaching 1 and 2) : Instruction in 
subjects requiring a continuous development of thought. Assignment of lessons 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS [\ 



and devising of various appropriate modes of recitation. Conduct of related 
drill- and examinations. Art of questioning. 

Method (modes described for Practice Teaching 1 and 2): Responsible in- 
struction of a Bection or of the whole school, according to ability of the student 
teacher. Responsible administration, — filing, care of clothing, .-inks, furniture, 
blackboards; books and supplies. Visitation of other Bchools. Substituting in 
schools of the vicinity. 

Education 9. Practice Teaching 4. 

E ond half of second year. Six weeks; eighteen periods weekly; out- 
side preparation, eighteen periods weekly; one or two assignments, accord- 
ing to the choice or evident need of the student. 

Aims (as for Practice Teaching 1, 2, and 3) : To conduct a school as if a paid 
mt. To discover causes of inattention and misdemeanors and to adapt 
means of prevention. To relate punishment to offence. To understand the 
aims, procedures, difficulties, and successes of class and school management 
organized and conducted by the pupils. To measure progress of individual 
pupils. 

Content (exercises as described for Practice Teaching 1, 2, and 3): Writing 
of lesson plans, with special attention to adaptation of method and device. 
Instruction in subjects requiring logical and causal thinking. Grouping of 
pupils according to similarity of intellectual abilities; of social interests. Con- 
duct of group work along advanced or applied lines. Investigation of home 
occupation, amusement, reading, and study. Solution of problems of delin- 
quency. Keeping school records. 

Method (modes described for Practice Teaching 1, 2, and 3): Responsible 
teaching and administration, according to abilities of student teachers. Par- 
ticular modes of strengthening weak efforts of the student teacher. Keeping of 
daily attendance records and making of monthly report. Making inventories of 
school property. Participation in all school events connecting home and com- 
munity. Visitation of other schools. Substituting in the vicinity. 



SHORT WINTER COURSES 

Teachers desirous of spending their winter vacations at the 
school are cordially invited to come at any time. Observation 
work, study of elected subjects, participation in regular and 
special courses, and preparation of teaching material are 
offered in all departments of the normal and training schools. 
There is afforded every facility for study, the work being 
adapted to the wishes and capabilities of applicants in so far as 
the permanent needs of the school permit. Xo summer session 
is held. During February or March a separate class for vaca- 
tion students is conducted in subjects selected from tills list: — 



42 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 

Arithmetic, — every-day activities which require the use of 
number. What and how children learn naturally about num- 
ber out of school and what to do in school. How to study a 
store and how to conduct a store in the schoolroom. How to 
use home, store, and farm accounts. Practical exercises in 
measuring length, area, volume, weight, capacity, value. 
What fractions are used in ordinary daily business and how. 
Business practices in percentage. Agricultural arithmetic. 

Natural steps in all arithmetical solutions. How to think, 
diagram, explain, and figure problems. Business modes of se- 
curing accuracy and speed. 

Form, — how to use objects of all kinds in teaching form. 
How form underlies all number, all drawing, all construction. 
How to teach use of ruler, card, and compasses. Easy me- 
chanical drawing for all grades, and its connection with arith- 
metic and construction work. 

Drawing, — free-hand pencil and brush work lessons in form, 
color, and design as related to construction and home decora- 
tion. 

Story telling, — how children tell and learn to tell stories 
before coming to school. How to continue with younger 
grades. How to use a book in learning to tell a story. Im- 
portance of story telling to reading, literature, history, and 
geography. 

Reading, — how children learn to talk, act, converse, drama- 
tize before coming to school. The purposes of silent and oral 
reading. What is meant by the thought, sentence, action, 
word, phonetic, story, and methods. How to teach the rhyme 
method and the progressive story method. Prevailing defects 
and their prevention in the reading of grammar pupils. 

Story and letter writing, — how to secure free writing, sen- 
tence making, paragraphing, and punctuation. 

Literature, — its value and place in primary grades; in 
grammar grades. Methods of teaching. 

Grammar, — what and how children learn naturally. How 
analysis of sentences is easy and leads to appreciation of litera- 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT SOUTH ADAMS 43 

tare. How the study of the parts of speech can lead to cor- 
rect expression. 

Spelling, — written and oral, importance of each. How to 
secure interest, accuracy, and speed. 

riant study, — growth of bulbs, green wood cuttings (slips), 
seeds, and preparation for gardening. 

Geography, — relation of outdoor work to study of pictures, 
sand models, and maps. Continents, with special attention to 
ways of using textbooks. Nations, with application to com- 
mercial geography. 

History, — how to celebrate great days. How to use hero 
stories. United States history. 

Emergency practice, — adapted to experiences of children. 

Hygiene, — how to make it lifelike and profitable. 

Children's games, — indoors and on the playground. 

Seat work, — kinds and uses appropriate to the several pri- 
mary grades. 

Industrial work, — special opportunities have been arranged 
for instruction and practice in the forms of work feasible in dis- 
trict schools. 

Child study, — phases of life and their relation to teaching. 

Lesson plans, — value and use. 

Programs, — the variety and distribution of subjects taught 
in district schools will be thoroughly discussed and programs 
made. 

For expenses, see page 53. 



CORRESPONDENCE COURSES 

The purpose of these courses is to aid teachers — 
Who have had no professional training at a normal school. 
Who have taken short winter or summer courses. 
Who have taken special courses. 

Who have not been able to complete regular diploma 
courses. 



44 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 

Who are graduates of normal schools but who wish special 
aid in organizing the practical arts ("industrial work," "seat 
work," "occupation work," etc.), or who wish to study certain 
subjects more extensively or to prepare to teach new sub- 
jects. 

The co-operation of the superintendent is of vital importance. 
With his approval and aid the correspondence lessons can be 
put into daily practice. 

The conditions of admission to correspondence courses are — 

The applicant may be any teacher in active service or who 
plans to return to active service. 

The applicant may be a person who has entered a Massa- 
chusetts normal school by certificate or examinations or both, 
or who is unable to remain for resident study. 

A testimonial of good character and of fitness for the work 
must be presented from the superintendent or other competent 
judge. 

The registration paper and testimonials must be acceptable 
to the principal of the normal school. 

The normal school reserves the right to discontinue the work 
of any student for reason of poor or irregular work, nonpay- 
ment of incidental expenses, nonsuccess in actual school work, 
or of character. 

The courses given are limited to those subjects or parts of 
subjects which can be pursued satisfactorily by correspond- 
ence. Subjects or parts of subjects which require the use of a 
laboratory or the personal presence of the instructor are not 
undertaken. The choice of subjects depends on the scholar- 
ship of the applicant and the opportunity to put the subjects 
and methods into practice. 

The scope of each course is as follows: — 

Investigation: — 

Experiences of the pupils 
Content and divisions of the subject 
Value of the subject to the learner 
Relation of the subject to other subjects 
Natural mode of learning the subject 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 45 

Organization: — 

] )ist inguishing essenl ials 
Condensing thought into topics 
Adapting the subject to the — 

Experiences and interests of the learner 

Aim of the teacher 

Limitations of the program, etc. 
Expression in appropriate manner 

Construction 

Drawing 

Speech 

Script 
Extension of scholarship, to — 

Get wider and more accurate knowledge 
Appreciate interrelations of parts of the subject 
Value the subject in relation to other subjects 
Discriminate leading facts more wisely 
Meet emergencies, be resourceful 

Express in forms adapted to the pupil and the subject 
Preparation of lesson plans for — 
Teaching new lessons 
Conducting recitations 
Promoting individual and group work 
Drilling 
Examining 
Each plan includes — 

Purpose of the teacher 

Selection of the project, object, or subject 

Arrangement of topics and order of procedure 

Preparation of material to be used 

Method of conducting the work 
Teaching under observation 

The phases of each subject to be taken will be adapted to 
the previous training of the corresponding teacher and to the 
immediate needs of her individual school. 

The method of work is — * 

Co-operation with the superintendent. 

Choice of subjects to be determined in part by the present 
scholarship of the candidate, but more largely by the oppor- 
tunity for practice and the availability of material. 

Study of subject and method in accordance with outlines and 



46 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 

lesson plans prepared by normal school instructors. Submission 
of recitation papers, one lesson at a time to the instructor, who 
will correct and return the same at his early convenience. 

Practice of the manner and method of corrected lessons on 
the teacher's own pupils. In case the method is not approved 
by the superintendent for habitual use, the student must give 
satisfactory evidence of understanding the methods, both of 
the superintendent and the normal school instructor. The 
first purpose is to teach to understand and discriminate the 
excellences and defects of the method which is in use, then to 
advocate the definite practice of a safe and sound method. 

Written examinations, testing knowledge of facts and of 
methods, must be passed in all subjects studied, either at the 
normal school or under outside supervision approved by the 
normal school. 

The assistance of the superintendent is expected in en- 
couraging the study and practice by the teacher. The superin- 
tendent, on request, sends to the normal school instructor a 
written judgment of the teacher's progress in teaching, and 
his recommendation as to changes in the work or as to the 
credit to be allowed. 

Visits are made by the instructor from the normal school to 
the classrooms of the corresponding teachers to observe the 
work and give personal aid, if distance and expense permit. 

Credit for work accomplished is given as follows : — 

A certificate is given for the satisfactory completion of each 
course, which credit counts for full value toward a diploma. 

All credits gained by correspondence work are added to 
those gained by resident work at the normal school. 

One year of resident work at the normal school is required 
to complete the course of study prescribed by the Department 
of Education. 

A diploma is granted to a student who completes satis- 
factorily all the subjects of the course, in part by correspond- 
ence, in part by one year of resident work. 

The books necessary for each course are designated in each 
series of lessons. Correspondence students are advised to buy 




THE WESTERN HILLS 




JUST OVER THE WESTERN HILLS 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT XORTII ADAMS 47 

certain books which have been proved of permanent value. 
The normal school loans books to accredited students on re- 
ceiving an advance 1 deposit varying from 50 cents to SI for 
each book loaned. The money placed on deposit is repaid 
immediately on receipt of the books loaned. 

The lesson plans and topics if in print are bought by the stu- 
dents. They are free if in the instructor's script. Payment is 
made in advance for the lesson plans or topics. 

No registration or tuition fee is charged any legal resident of 
Massachusetts. The usual items of expense are printed notes, 
paper, postage, and books. 

LOCATION 

North Adams is located in the northwest corner of Massa- 
chusetts, amid some of the most attractive of the Berkshire 
Hills. The school buildings are on the westerly slope of an 
eminence rising several hundred feet above the Hoosac River, 
and from them are seen the rounded domes of the Green 
Mountains, the foothills of Greylock, the highest peak in 
Massachusetts, and the abrupt wall of Hoosac Mountain, 
through which Hoosac Tunnel penetrates. 

The city is easily reached from the east and west by the 
Boston & Maine Railroad, from the south by the Boston & 
Albany Railroad. Electric cars connect the city with Williams- 
town and other towns to the west, with Adams and other 
towns southward through Berkshire County. 

BUILDINGS 

The school building, the dormitory, and the principal's house 
in exterior are of yellow brick and white marble, with metal 
roofs. The school building, in Italian style, is one hundred 
and fifty-two feet long, eighty-four feet deep, and three stories 
and basement in height. It is of slow-burning construction, 
the floor timbering and roof being carried with steel beams 
and trusses. The arrangement of stairways, which are iron, 
gives easy and safe egress. 



48 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 

In the basement are the boiler, engine, fuel, heating, and 
repair rooms, rooms for woodwork, printing, basketry, and 
chair seating, and a photographic dark room; in the first 
story, lunch, cloak, coat and toilet rooms, and four natural 
science laboratories; in the second story, the assembly hall, 
offices, libraries, and classrooms for language, mathematics, 
and music; and in the third story, the physical and chemical 
laboratories; the kitchen, dining room, chamber, and sewing 
room; the kindergarten and art rooms. 

EQUIPMENT 

The four natural science laboratories are arranged in se- 
quence, and by means of specimens and models in wall cases is 
displayed the progression of mineral, plant, and animal life to 
its development in man. Banks of drawers are provided for 
type collections and table drawers for working collections and 
tools. In the instructors' laboratories are reserve specimens, 
models, pictures, charts, and diagrams. All the science labora- 
tories are well equipped for individual experimentation. 

The household arts equipment includes a kitchen, dining 
room, chamber, laundry, and sewing room in the school build- 
ing and all the appointments in the dormitory. 

The gardens contain a little more than three acres, and are 
devoted to school gardening, agriculture, and horticulture. 
The greenhouse measures 25 by 36 feet, the tool house 42 by 
16 feet. 

The practical arts equipment includes also four wood and 
metal working rooms; a shoe repairing equipment; a room 
furnished for working with paper, cardboard, reed, raffia, 
leather, clay, and for chair seating; a printing 'room. 

The forge shop, 32 by 60 feet, is equipped with eighteen 
forges and benches. 

The mathematical department is supplied with collections of 
commercial and conventional objects for individual use and 
class observation in the study of geometry and arithmetic, in 
their appropriate development through all grades, including 
those of the high school. 



8TATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 49 

The historical and literary departments are supplied with 
several hundred classified pictures and numerous charts. 

The art departments are equipped with adjustable tables, 
models, type and ornamental forms, pictures, drawings, casts, 
and textiles illustrative of the phases of modern art teaching. 

The musical equipment includes a gramophone, with four 
hundred selections, and four pianos. 

The library is arranged with especial reference to the needs 
of teachers. Department libraries are proportionately repre- 
sented. Magazines and pamphlets for general culture and 
departmental study are numerous. 

A radiopticon and an electric projecting lantern, with 
numerous cards, films, and slides, have been provided. These 
are used in the various schools, and supplement the work in 
geography, science, literature, and art. 

The gymnasium is located in the dormitory, and is well 
equipped with apparatus, shower baths, and lockers. Lawn 
areas are used for basket ball, baseball, tennis, lawn bowls, 
volley ball, archery, croquet, and similar games. 

TRAINING SCHOOLS 

Mark Hopkins School, North Adams 

On a lot adjacent to the normal school lot is a brick build- 
ing, containing twenty classrooms, an assembly hall, two large 
basements, playrooms, a woodworking room for the kinder- 
garten and primary grades, the motor and boiler rooms. In 
an annex is the gymnasium, 40 by 72 feet, supplied with ap- 
paratus sufficient for the accommodation of classes of forty 
pupils each. All grades are represented, beginning with the 
kindergarten and extending through nine years of primary 
and grammar work to the high school. There are eighteen 
rooms, in each of which is a regular teacher in charge of a class 
not exceeding forty pupils. The principal is free for the direct 
observation and instruction of the normal students. 



50 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



Briggsville School, Clarksburg 

This training school is located in a typical mill village 
about three miles from the normal school, and is reached 
easily by electric cars. The building is modern, roomy, and 
heated by furnaces. Each of the two rooms accommodates 
forty pupils, classed in four grades. The educational problems 
are distinctly those of a country mill village. 

Bishop School, Clarksburg 

This training school is situated about one mile beyond the 
Briggsville School. It is a typical rural school, occupying 
one room. The pupils number about twenty and are in six 
grades. The furniture is movable. 

Each of these schools is the center of much community 
work and play. 

These three training schools afford unusual opportunities 
for the study of children and the practice of teaching. Stu- 
dents begin their work in this department immediately after 
their admission, and continue it regularly throughout the 
course. The rapidity of progress of the training school work 
depends on the ability and previous experience of the student. 
Definite oral instruction and printed schedules guide the ob- 
servation of children individually, in groups, in classes, and 
the observation of teaching and control. 

TACONIC HALL 

The material of the dormitory is yellow brick and white 
marble, thus carrying out the color scheme. The building is 
156 feet long and 100 feet wide, the courtyard being about 
58 by 70 feet. On account of the slope of the land the base- 
ment floor is at grade with the courtyard, thus securing dry 
and light living rooms and making the wings as seen from the 
courtyard three stories high. The balcony over the east porch 
is available for persons living on the third floor, and the two 




TACONIC HALL 




SOCIAL ROOM 



READING ROOM 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 51 

west balconies accommodate those living on the first and 
second floors. Two guest rooms with adjoining bathrooms are 
provided for parents and friends. Two hospital rooms, with 
suitable furniture and intervening bathroom, are on the third 
floor, and are connected by telephone with the matron's room. 

The building is heated by steam and lighted by electricity. 
Special fire-alarm bells, outside iron stairways, inside fire 
apparatus, and frequent fire drills afford excellent protection. 

Unusual facilities are provided for cultivating homelike, social 
life. The spacious area at the intersection of the first-floor 
corridors, the east piazza, and west balcony afford delightful 
opportunities for gathering and conversation. On the same 
floor are the social room, the reading room, the music room, and 
the large assembly room, all these rooms being used freely by 
students. The gymnasium is in the basement, convenient for 
day or evening play. Four pianos are available for practice. 

A subway connects the dormitory with the school building, 
affording easy access to the gymnasium and protection during 
inclement weather. 

The students' rooms are, for the most part, on the second 
and third floors. Two students occupy one room. Each room 
is supplied with chairs, study table, bookcase, bureau, com- 
mode, screen, two couches (three feet wide), mattresses, pil- 
lows, and coverlets. Each boarder brings bedding, towels, 
napkins, napkin ring, and two clothes bags. 

All articles sent to the laundry must be distinctly and in- 
delibly marked with the owner's name in full. Trunks also 
must be marked so as to be easily identified. 

Rooms are assigned to entering students according to pri- 
ority of application, preference being given to residents of 
Massachusetts. 

EXPENSES 

Tuition. — To residents of Massachusetts declaring their 
intention to teach in the public schools of the Commonwealth 
tuition is free; but residents of other States and countries, 
and residents of Massachusetts intending to teach in other 



52 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 

States or in private schools, may be admitted to other normal 
schools than the Normal Art School upon the payment of 
tuition at the rate of $50 per year, and such students may be 
admitted to the Normal Art School upon paying tuition at 
the rate of $100 per year, provided that the admission of 
such students does not exclude or inconvenience residents of 
Massachusetts intending to teach in the public schools of the 
Commonwealth. 

Textbooks and supplie^ v are free as in the public schools. 

State aid to pupils in* the normal schools shall be distributed 
to the several schools according to the number of applicants. 

It shall be granted to such persons as, in the judgment of 
the principals of the several schools, with the approval of the 
Commissioner of Education, are most deserving of such aid; 
but the selection of the recipients shall be made from such 
pupils as have previously attended at least one-half year of 
the school. 

In this distribution of State aid the pupils who live in towns 
where normal schools are situated shall not be considered as 
entitled to any portion thereof. 

Board. — The regulations of the Department of Education 
require that the boarders shall pay the current expenses, which 
include table board, heating in part, laundry, and service. This 
being a fluctuating item no definite agreement as to the exact 
price can be entered upon. At present the price of such board 
is estimated as $2©0 for the school year, payable in advance, in 
four payments, one every ten weeks, beginning with the open- 
ing of school in September. 

The object of this payment in advance is to secure the pur- 
chase of supplies at wholesale cash prices, thereby lessening the 
cost of supplies and saving to each boarder much more than 
the interest of the money advanced. 

When pupils leave the school before the expiration of a term, 
money paid in advance will be refunded pro rata. No reduc- 
tion is made for absence from the hall of less than one week. 

If there are vacant rooms those who wish to room alone may 
do so on payment of the additional charge of $25 per year. 



8TATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 53 

Employment. — Capable and reliable students can reduce 
their expenses by assisting in the household work; for example, 
by waiting on table, washing silver and glass, etc. Efficiency, 
need, and priority of application control the appointments. 
The amounts thus earned vary from s| to $2 per week. 

Short Courses. — Tc-short-course students living two in a 
room the cost is SO* per week (six or seven days), including 
bedclothing, towels, napkins, and laundry. The cost to 
students living one in a room is $JT0O per week. The rate 
for five days or less is $1 per day. Tuition is free. Text- 
books are loaned to students. The cost for stationery and 
industrial material is small. 



54 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



STUDENTS 



Senior Class 



Elementary 



Mary Elizabeth Boyle 
Laura Prudence Brewer 
Harriet Joslin Chace . 
Mary Frances Collins 
Grace Mary Creelan . 
Evelina DeMarco 
Frances Catherine Dooley 
Edith Taylor Fobes . 
Dorothy Gray 
Mary Cecilia Hillard . 
Mabel Margaret Lewis 
Catherine Frances Macksey 
Janet Daisy Madison . 
Drusilla Josephine Miner . 
Helen Bessie Moore . 
Doris Mollie Rubenstein . 
Josephine Eleanor Tallarico 
Catherine Lynch Tracy 
Helen Sarah Tracy 



Department 

Hatfield 
Sheffield 



Beverly 
North Adams 
Pittsfield 
North Adams 
North Adams 
Pittsfield. 
Shelburne Falls 
North Adams 
Adams 
North Adams 
North Adams 
East Windsor 
North Adams 
Pittsfield 
North Adams 
Great Barrington 
Stockbridge 



Kindergarten-Primary Department 



Marcella Gertrude Barrett 
Elizabeth May Hammond 
Agnes Eugenia Joyce . 
Sara Creelan McCann 
Alice Margaret Nichols 



Adams 
Pittsfield 
Pittsfield 
North Adams 
North Adams 



Household Arts Department 

Ethel Viola Clayton Williamstown 

Arminia Cecile Deguire Adams 

Harriet Elizabeth Haskins .... Williamstown 



STAT/: NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



).) 



Leafy May Hicks 
Carolyn Blanche Hyde 
ilia Todd McLaren 
Gladys Barber Montgomery 

Laura Myrta Smith . 
Dawn ( rrace Williams 
Winifred Bartletl Wood . 



North Adams 
Pittsfield 

Adams 

Pownal, Vt. 

Hatfield 
North Adams 
Cheshire 



Junior Class 



Josephine Stuart Adams 
Anna Aronstein . 
(I race Elebecca Barber 
Marion Isabel Bence . 
Mabel Grace Chittim 
Alice Virginia Collins . 
Florence Kathlyn Connors 
Mildred Agnes Connors 
Grace Elizabeth Corcoran 
Bessie Irene Domin . 
Martha Elizabeth Durnin 
Aurelia Millicent Galusha 
Ida Gibbs 

Mildred Leila Harris . 
Loretta Josephine Loftus 
Elizabeth Agnes Mackey 
Marion Hope Mallery 
Marion Elizabeth Marley 
Helen Prances McCabe 
Viola Elizabeth McKay 
Alice Elizabeth Mooney 
Rachel Judson Palmer 
Marion Esther Parker 
Grace Evangeline Pinkham 
Isabel Margaret Robertson 
Alexandra Ingraham Smith 
Katherine Angela Stan- 
Helen Brigham Stevens 
Beryl Woodhead Stodden 
Ruth Mae Walker 
Elizabeth Mary Walsh 



Adams 
Pittsfield 
Williams town 

Pittsfield 

Easthampton 

Lee (South) 

Adams 

Adams 

Glendale 

North Adams 

North Adams 

Windsor 

Hatfield 

South Deerfield 

Xorth Adams 

Xorth Adams 

Xorth Adams 

Xorth Adams 

Xorth Adams 

Xorth Adams 

Dalton 

Stockbridge 

Lenox 

Xorth Adams 

Leyden 

Easthampton 

Xorth Adams 

Great Barrington 

Xorth Adams 

Adams 

Xorth Bennington, Vt. 



56 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



Special Courses 

M. Virginia Baughman Lanesborough 

Laura Charon Adams 

Mae Belle Harrington Otis 

Margaret Miller Chester 

Julia Burlingame Plumb (Wellesley, 1919), . North Adams 



Bessie A. Brown . 
Edythe Dowd 
Leah S. Gillette . 
Irene V. Houghton 
Margaret G. McGurren 
Marjorie C. Morton . 
Mae Rogers . 



Short Residence Courses 

Cheshire 

North Adams, R. F. D.3 



Whitingham, Vt. 
Rowe 
Worcester 
Goshen 
Whitingham, Vt. 



Correspondence Courses 

Helen N. Anderson 
Lydia C. Anderson 
Anna H. Andrews 
Flora Amede 
Bessie M. Amidon 
Bessie Bailey 
Mrs. M. E. Bamforth 
Eleanor A. Barden 
Alice B. Beals 
Mary D. Begley . 
Emma Bell . 
Nellie L. Bellamy 
Hope T. Bennett 
M. J. Benton 
Elsie 0. Bernier . 
Mrs. Harvey S. Billings 
Mrs. Susan W. Blake 
Lona E. Boothby 
Rachel L. Bridgman . 
Mary Cahill 



Everett 

Everett 

Middleborough 

Berkshire 

South Shaftsbury 

Middleborough 

Blackstone 

Middleborough 

Atlantic 

Middleborough 

Newburyport 

Gloucester 

Belmont 

Quincy 

West Otis 

Cummington 

West Stockbridge 

Beverly 

Conway 

East Braintree 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



57 



Marie T. Canning 
Ruth T. Carpenter 
Elizabeth S. Cavanaugh 
Florence V. Cheney 
Flora M. Clark . 
Ednah M. Clegg . 
Florence E. Controy 
Frances E. Craffey 
Mary L. Crocker 
Katherine Crowe 
Katherine G. Danahy 
Faye B. Deane . 
( 1 race DeGrasse . 
May E. Delay 
Bessie Dietrich . 
Helen Dignan 
Elizabeth V. Donahoe 
Martinia K. Donahue 
Blanche E. Doyle 
Anna I. Driscoll . 
Alice G. Dimcklee 
Alice Durgin 
Mary L. Egan 
May B. Fairbanks 
Annie E. Fales . 
Edith A. Farnum 
Minnie G. Feeley 
Margaret M. Flaherty 
Mary A. Forrest . 
Margaret Franklin 
Helen A. French . 
Harriet S. French 
Beulah E. Hager . 
Rebecca L. Hammond 
Lou M. Harmon . 
May B. Harrington 
Agnes C. Harris . 
Lydia S. Harris . 
Roxana Hickey . 
Alice N. Hazard . 



Randolph 

North Adams 

East Hartford, Conn. 

South Lee 

Middleborough 

Uxbridge 

Hinsdale 

Westborough 

Onset 

Hopkinton 

Mittineague 

Middleborough 

Gloucester 

Leominster 

Pittsfield 

South Braintree 

Natick 

Middleborough 

Swampscott 

Whitinsville 

Beverly 

Swampscott 

West Quincy 

South Lancaster 

Westborough 

Swampscott 

Randolph 

Mashpee 

Randolph 

Needham 

Dodge 

Lexington 

Rowe 

Wareham 

Ashfield 

Otis 

Colrain 

Ipswich 

West Somerville 

Boylston 



58 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 

Evelyn M. Henderson Somerville 

Alice Higgins Somerville 

Mabel M. Higgins . . - . . . . Los Angeles, Cal. 

Sarah L. Hinchey Somerset 

Florence B. Holt Andover 

Lydia Hopkins Randolph 

Mrs. H. H. Houghton Norwood 

Anna F. Hoye Randolph 

Blanche M. Hurley . . . . . . Leominster 

Mrs. Mildred M. H. Hurley .... Maiden 

Anna G. Hynes Wales 

Mary E. Hynes Wales 

H. Louise Johnson Brookline 

Minnie A. Johnston Beverly 

Hattie M. Jones Middleborough 

Mary G. Kavanah Methuen 

Harold E. Keay Mattapan 

Mary A. Keefe Quincy 

Helen M. Kelley Hopkinton 

Florence Keith Eastham 

Sarah L. Keith Bridgewater 

S. Helen Kennison Beverly 

Mabel S. Knight Swampscott 

Margaret G. Knight Quincy 

Lottie N. Lang Middleborough 

Mrs. Grace Phelps Lickley .... Osseo, Mich. 

Jane P. Lowell Newburyport 

Mrs. Sarah A. Madaus Worcester 

Myrtle L. Markham Natick 

Jessie C. Martin Swampscott 

Louise Marvel Brockton 

Mr. John I. May West Cummington 

Margaret R. McAuliffe Randolph 

Isabel McAvoy Hinsdale 

Edith S. McCurdy Beverly 

Ralph A. Mclntire Northampton 

Margaret G. McGurren Worcester 

Ellen. McLaughlin Randolph 

May E. McLaughlin Whitinsville 

Lettie R. McMaster Lowell 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 



59 



('hue V. Merriam 
Lucy E. Merrihew 

Marion L. Miller 

Sylvia S. Morton 

Annie Mullin 

Marioo F. Newcomb . 

Eva G. Oakes . . 

Margaret C. O'Brien . 

Delia G. O'Connor 

Stella A. Ogert . 

Helen F. O'Xeil . 

Sue Owens . 

Florence C. Page 

Elizabeth M. Parsons 

Orren L. Pease . 

Louise C. Peterson 

Charles E. Pethybridge 

Emily F. Pettit . 

Mrs. Gertrude A. Pillsbury 

Eleanor Pingree . 

Mrs. Grace D. Proctor 

Lucy A. Quinlan . 

Eliza M. Rabette 

Mabel E. Randolph . 

Lydia Raymond . 
Grace V. Reed . 
Bertha M. Richards . 
Mrs. Eleanor K. Richardson 
Martha T. Robinson . 
Elisabeth E. Rogers . 
Arthur S. Rollins 
Lillian M. Rush . 
Helena K. Rutherford 
Katherine A. Schneider 
Mary E. F. Shea 
Estella M. Sheon 
Margaret I. Shirley 
Alta F. Silsby . 
Hannah H. Sleeper 
Sister Evelyn 



Charlton Depot 

Middleborough 

Beverly 

Conway 

Westborough 

Swampscott 

Cambridge 

Fitchburg 

Spencer 

Williamstown 

West Warren 

Pittsfield 

South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Gloucester 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Gloucester 

Princeton 

State Line 

West Bridgewater 

Hawthorne 

New Boston, N. H. 

Devon Manor, Pa. 

Hudson 

Westfield 

Fairhaven 

Lowell 

Blandford 

Warren 

South Hamilton 

New Bedford 

Lancaster 

Springfield 

Oakham 

Great Barrington 

Worcester 

Athol 

Quincy 

Orange 

Everett 

Watertown 



60 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 

Sister Joseph Marie Watertown 

Sister Mary Alexis East Cambridge 

Sister M. Angeline Watertown 

Sister M. Benedict Watertown 

Sister M. Catherine Watertown 

Sister Mary Christina East Boston 

Sister M. Clarita Watertown 

Sister Dolorita Watertown 

Sister Genevieve North Cambridge 

Sister Mary Henry East Cambridge 

Sister Mary Inez East Cambridge 

Sister Mary James East Cambridge 

Sister Mary Margaret Alacoque . . . East Cambridge 

Sister M. Marjorie Watertown 

Sister Mary Marjorie McGonagle . . . Watertown 

Sister M. Rosarii Fall River 

Sister Mary Rose Watertown 

Sister M. Octavia Charlestown 

Sister Mary Thomas East Boston 

Sister Mary Rita Veronica .... East Cambridge 

Sister Mary Valerian East Cambridge 

Sister Mary Victorine Watertown 

May D. Sleeper North Chelmsford 

Nellie H. Smith Gilbertville 

Mrs. Kate H. Somes Otis 

Louise C. Stanley . . . . . . Swampscott 

Bernice G. Stimpson Andover 

Mrs. Pauline H. Stone Greenfield 

Christine Streeter Windsor 

Helen L. Sweet Greenfield 

Evelyn Teasdale ....... North Attleborough 

Etta W. Toothaker Middleborough 

Mabel F. Verry Everett 

M. Lucia Waite Melrose 

Florence E. Walker Upton 

Abby S. Westgate Middleborough 

Ina K. Wetzel Hinsdale 

Lena C. White Whitman 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT NORTH ADAMS 61 



Summary 

Senior class 34 

Elementary department 19 

Kmdergarten-prirnary department 5 

Household arts department 10 

Junior class 31 

Special courses 5 

Short residence courses 7 

Correspondence courses 178 

255 

Counted twice 2 

Total 253